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America Before Columbus

First encounters: Indians of North AmericaCreated by: PICRYLDated: 2017
Drake's entertainment by the King of the Countrey., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
The Native Americans were the first inhabitants of the Americas. They settled in different regions and formed independent tribes with distinct cultures. By 1492 there were over 300 separate native languages. When Christopher Columbus landed on October 12, 1492, he thought he had reached India, and called the native people Indians, a name which gave them a collective identity.
The Indians, Columbus reported, "are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone...."
127 Media in collectionpage 1 of 2
Theodor de Bry - Their manner of fishing in Virginia

Theodor de Bry - Their manner of fishing in Virginia

Native men and women in a canoe fishing while others in the background stand in the river and spear fish. Illus. in: A brief and true report of the new found land of Virginia: of the commodities and of the natu... More

[How the chief ladies of the town of Dasamonquepeio dress and carry their children] / T.B.

[How the chief ladies of the town of Dasamonquepeio dress and carry th...

Full-length, front and back portraits of a Native woman of Dasamonquepeio showing manner of dress and way of carrying a child on her back; view of river and landscape in the background. Illus. in: Admiranda nar... More

Theodor de Bry - [How they build boats] / T.B.

Theodor de Bry - [How they build boats] / T.B.

Native men making dugout boats by burning and scraping with seashells. Illus. in: Admiranda narratio, fida tamen, de commodis et incolarvm ritibvs Virginiæ [...]. Wecheli : svmtibvs T. de Bry, 1590, [plate] 12.... More

Theodor de Bry - [The tomb of the weroans]

Theodor de Bry - [The tomb of the weroans]

An Algonquian burial house showing bodies on a raised platform and a priest squatting by a fire beneath the platform. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten der Wi... More

[A noblewoman of Pomeiock] / T.B.

[A noblewoman of Pomeiock] / T.B.

Native woman of Pomeiock carrying a clay vessel, and her daughter holding a doll and a rattle.

Theodor de Bry - [How they catch fish]

Theodor de Bry - [How they catch fish]

Native men and women in a dugout canoe fishing while others in the background stand in the river and spear fish. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten der Wilden ... More

Theodor de Bry - [How they cook their fish] / T.B.

Theodor de Bry - [How they cook their fish] / T.B.

Native men cooking fish on a wooden frame over a fire. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten der Wilden in Virginia ... / Erstlich in engelländischer Sprach besch... More

Theodor de Bry - [The dances at their great feasts]

Theodor de Bry - [The dances at their great feasts]

Native men and women dancing around a circle defined by posts with carved faces, three Native women stand together in the center of circle. Illus. in: Admiranda narratio, fida tamen, de commodis et incolarvm ri... More

Theodor de Bry - [The town of Pomeiock] / T.B.

Theodor de Bry - [The town of Pomeiock] / T.B.

Fortified Native village the manner of construction of the buildings and the enclosing stockade. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten der Wilden in Virginia ... ... More

Theodor de Bry - [A weroans, or chieftain, of Virginia]

Theodor de Bry - [A weroans, or chieftain, of Virginia]

Full-length, front and back portraits of a Native chief in Virginia, with bow and arrow; hunting scene in the background. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Gelegenheit vnd Sitten de... More

[An old man in his winter clothes] / T.B.

[An old man in his winter clothes] / T.B.

An aged Native man from Pomeiock, full-length portrait, facing front, wearing winter garment; landscape scene with village in the background. Illus. in: Wunderbarliche, doch warhafftige Erklärung, von der Geleg... More

Theodor de Bry - [The Englishmen's arrival in Virginia]

Theodor de Bry - [The Englishmen's arrival in Virginia]

Map showing the coast of Virginia with many islands just off the mainland, two Native territories, Secotan and Weapemeoc, and the Native community of Roanoak on an island at the mouth of a river. Illus. in: Wun... More

[The queen-elect is brought to the king]

[The queen-elect is brought to the king]

Native men carrying the queen seated on a throne supported by a litter; trumpeters lead the procession which is followed by young women carrying baskets of fruit and by a contingent of bodyguards. Illus. in: Br... More

Theodor de Bry - Gallorum ad Maij flumen navigatio

Theodor de Bry - Gallorum ad Maij flumen navigatio

French expedition under Jean Ribaut enter the River of May (St. John's) in Florida. Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇cia Gallis acciderunt, : secunda in illam nauigatione, duce Rena... More

[Exercises of youth]. Book illustration from Library of Congress

[Exercises of youth]. Book illustration from Library of Congress

Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇cia Gallis acciderunt, : secunda in illam nauigatione, duce Renato de Laudōniere ... anno MDLXIIII. Qvae est secvnda pars Americae ... / Auctore Iac... More

[How the Natives collect gold in the streams]

[How the Natives collect gold in the streams]

Native men using hollow rods which they drive into the sandy bottom of streams to collect gold and other metals. Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇cia Gallis acciderunt, : secunda in... More

[Killing alligators]. Book illustration from Library of Congress

[Killing alligators]. Book illustration from Library of Congress

Natives attack and kill alligators by ramming a pole down it's throat, turning it over, beating it with clubs, and shooting it with arrows. Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇cia Gall... More

[Exercises of the youths]

[Exercises of the youths]

Native youths shooting arrows, throwing balls at target placed atop tall pole, and running races.

Theodor de Bry - [Trophies and ceremonies after a victory]

Theodor de Bry - [Trophies and ceremonies after a victory]

Natives gathered at designated place to celebrate victory over their enemies, with Chief Holata Outina standing in foreground with French soldiers. Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇... More

[The widows approach the chief]

[The widows approach the chief]

Native youths shooting arrows, throwing balls at target placed atop tall pole, and running races.

[A fortified village]. Book illustration from Library of Congress

[A fortified village]. Book illustration from Library of Congress

A Native village with the chief's house in the center, surrounded by huts of other principal men, and fortified by a circular arrangement of tall palings that spiral to a narrow opening at the entrance. Illus. ... More

Theodor de Bry - [The French arrive in Florida]

Theodor de Bry - [The French arrive in Florida]

The arrival of the French expedition under Laudonnière at the River of May (St. John's) in Florida. Illus. in: Der ander Theyl, der newlich erfundenen Landtschafft Americae, von dreyen Schiffahrten, so die Fran... More

The Natives of Florida worship the column erected by the commander on his first voyage

The Natives of Florida worship the column erected by the commander on ...

Chief Athore with René Laudonnière, commander of the second French expedition to Florida, standing by column erected by Jean Ribaut during first expedition, showing Natives worshiping the column and many offeri... More

[Florida Indians, disguised under deerskins, hunting deer]

[Florida Indians, disguised under deerskins, hunting deer]

Native men wearing deerskins while hunting deer.

[A method of hunting deer in the Northeast]

[A method of hunting deer in the Northeast]

Natives using devices for making noise to drive deer and other game towards a fenced area. Illus. in: Les voyages dv sievr de Champlain Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy, en la marine [...] / Samuel... More

[Native American burial or memorial ceremony with man standing by shelter with bundles of bones, friends and relatives of the dead, and lodge in background, New France (Canada)]

[Native American burial or memorial ceremony with man standing by shel...

Illus. in: Voyages et descouvertures faites en la Nouvelle France, depuis l'année 1615 ... / Samuel de Champlain. Paris : C. Collet, 1619, leaf 110 recto.

The figure of the Indians' fort or palizado in New England and the manner of the destroying it by Captayne Underhill and Captayne Mason / RH.

The figure of the Indians' fort or palizado in New England and the man...

The village of the Pequot Indians which was attacked and destroyed by Captain Underhill and Captain Mason in 1637. Illus. in: Nevves from America / John Underhill. London : Printed by J.D. for Peter Cole, [...]... More

Raquetes. Book illustration from Library of Congress

Raquetes. Book illustration from Library of Congress

Snowshoes and Natives wearing snowshoes while hunting deer.

["Building of the Griffin," Canada, ca. 1690]

["Building of the Griffin," Canada, ca. 1690]

Illus. in: Voyage curieux du R.P. Louis Hennepin / Louis Hennepin, 1704, oppos. p. 100.

[Native American mortuary customs: row of Indians carrying bodies over their shoulders to fires, platform with skeletons hanging above and bones below on benches, and groups of Indians standing around fires and poles hung with cloth or skins]

[Native American mortuary customs: row of Indians carrying bodies over...

Illus. in: Moeurs des sauvages ameriquains, comparées aux moeurs des premiers temps / Joseph Francois Lafitau. Paris : Saugrain l'aîné [etc.], 1724, v. 2, pl. 22, opp. p. 456.

[Native Americans collecting sap and cooking maple syrup in pots, tilling soil into raised humps, and sowing seeds, North America]

[Native Americans collecting sap and cooking maple syrup in pots, till...

Illus. in: Moeurs des sauvages ameriquains, comparées aux moeurs des premiers temps / Joseph Francois Lafitau. Paris : Saugrain l'aîne [etc.], 1724, vol. 2, pl. 7, opp. p. 154.

[De Quelle maniere Tascaluça reçut General]

[De Quelle maniere Tascaluça reçut General]

The manner in which Toscaluça received the General. Illus. in: Histoire de la conquete de la Floride / par Ferdinand de Soto. Composée en Espagnol par L'Inca Garcillasso de la Vega. Tome second. Aleide : Pierre... More

[Découverte d'une trahison dans Mauvila]

[Découverte d'une trahison dans Mauvila]

Discovery of treachery in Mauvila.

Austenaco, great warrior, Commander in Chief of the Cherokee Nation

Austenaco, great warrior, Commander in Chief of the Cherokee Nation

Illustration showing Austenaco: full-length portrait, standing, facing right. Illus. in: The royal magazine or gentleman's monthly companion. London : Printed for J. Coote, 1762, July, opp. p. 16.

[Indians dancing around two people at stake by fire] / S. Folwell, delt. ; P.R. Maverick, sct. N.Y.

[Indians dancing around two people at stake by fire] / S. Folwell, del...

Reference copy also available in LOT 4709-K. Illus. in: Affecting history of the dreadful distresses of Frederic Manheim's family, 1794, vol. 15, no. 3, frontis.

Gegenstände von New-Californien und Norfolk-Sound / G. v. Langsdorf ad natur : del ; F.C. Bock sc.

Gegenstände von New-Californien und Norfolk-Sound / G. v. Langsdorf ad...

Illustration shows various items, including baskets, necklaces, bows and arrows used by Native Americans. Title from item. Illus. in: Published in: Bemerkungen auf einer reise um die welt in den jahren 1803 bis... More

Ein Tanz der Indianer in der Mission von St. José in Neu-Californien

Ein Tanz der Indianer in der Mission von St. José in Neu-Californien

Illustration shows a group of Native Americans with their bodies painted and wearing feathers in their hair, dancing in a clearing. Title from item. Illus. in: Bemerkungen auf einer reise um die welt in den jah... More

Dance of the Indians of the Mission of St. Joseph in New California / engraved by Letitia & Elizh. Byrne.

Dance of the Indians of the Mission of St. Joseph in New California / ...

Six Native Americans with elaborate body markings and hairstyles, dancing.

A Kalapuya man - a native of Oregon / drawn by A.T. Agate ; W.H. Dougal sc.

A Kalapuya man - a native of Oregon / drawn by A.T. Agate ; W.H. Douga...

Head-and-shoulders portrait of a Kalapuya man. Illus. in: Narrative of the United States exploring expedition. During the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 / By Charles Wilkes... In five volumes, with thirteen... More

Chinook lodge / drawn by A.T. Agate ; R.W. Dawson sc.

Chinook lodge / drawn by A.T. Agate ; R.W. Dawson sc.

Interior view of Chinook lodge. Illus. in: Narrative of the United States exploring expedition. During the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 / By Charles Wilkes... In five volumes, with thirteen maps... Philad... More

Concomely's tomb, Astoria / drawn by A.T. Agate ; W.E. Tucker sc.

Concomely's tomb, Astoria / drawn by A.T. Agate ; W.E. Tucker sc.

A carved and painted, raised, Native burial platform. Illus. in: Narrative of the United States exploring expedition. During the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 / By Charles Wilkes... In five volumes, with t... More

[The chief's daughter] / J. G. Chapman, del. ;  Rawdon, Wright & Hatch, sculp.

[The chief's daughter] / J. G. Chapman, del. ; Rawdon, Wright & Hatch...

Native woman standing in stream, clutching her clothes to her breast. Illus. in: The Evergreen. Philadelphia : Carey and Hart, 1847, title page. Published in: American women : a Library of Congress guide for th... More

Indian sugar camp / Capt. S. Eastman, U.S. Army ; John C. McRae.

Indian sugar camp / Capt. S. Eastman, U.S. Army ; John C. McRae.

Native sugar camp and sap collecting from maple trees. Illus. in: The American aboriginal portfolio / Mary H. Eastman ; illustrated by S. Eastman, U.S. Army. Philada. : Lippincott, Gambo & Co., 1853, Pl. 9. Pub... More

Indian princess presenting a necklace of pearls to de Soto / J.W. Orr, N.Y.

Indian princess presenting a necklace of pearls to de Soto / J.W. Orr,...

Princess Xualla presenting a necklace of pearls to Hernando de Soto, at Cofachiqui (South Carolina) Illus. in: The Life, travels and adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi / Lambert A. W... More

Theodor de Bry - [A chief of Roanoke] / T.B.

Theodor de Bry - [A chief of Roanoke] / T.B.

Full-length, front and back view of Native chief showing manner of dress; river scene in background. Illus. in: Americae / Theodor de Bry, ed. München : Konrad Kölbl, 1970 reprint of edition published 1600, par... More

[Indian art of making the Mandihoka fit for bread.], Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Sacrifice Island., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - [Natives dancing.], Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - A Remarkable beast., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - America, Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
After what manner the Inhabitants of America came thither., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
'Llama (says he) a four-footed Creature, furnishes its Master with Meat and clothing.'
John Ogilby - Brave reception of a King in Hispaniola., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Columbus goes to Sea to discover the Countreys., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Remarkable Images and strange Stage., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Pizarro fights with Attabaliba., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Mexicans Apparel., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - St. Iago, Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Cruel dealings in Curiana., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Angra op Tercera, Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Strange Garden House., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
[Native Chief of New Gallicia or Guadalajara.], Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
Peruvians throwing ashes of their offerings into the river., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Pagus Hispanorum, Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - [Brasilian man and woman.], Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
Various idolataries of the Peruvians., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - King Powhaten., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Offerings of the Peruvians., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Harts and Stags., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
[Trees and animals of Tabago.], Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
Habit of a Floridan King., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
[Spaniards making chocolate mix maiz.], Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - [Native Brazilians in the midst of a ceremonial dance.], Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Remarkable wreck of the ship Batavia., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
Barberous customs of the people of Panuco., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
Cloisters dedicated to the Ancient Mexican Religion., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Guarapucu, Piracarba and Flying fishes., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
The Manner of making sugar in the sugar-mills., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
Muteczuma's brother threw himself down from the Scaffold., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Tapuyans feasting in honor of the stars., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - Customs and habits of the ancient Natives., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
John Ogilby - [Fighting between the Natives and Spaniards.], Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
Ancient attire of the Mexicans., Montanus Arnoldus 1625-1683, cartographer
Christophe Colomb parmi les Indiens / lith. de Turgis.

Christophe Colomb parmi les Indiens / lith. de Turgis.

Christopher Columbus among Indians. Title also in Spanish.

Indian dance.
Washington and Gist visit Queen Aliquippa.
Theodor de Bry - They reach Port Royal

Theodor de Bry - They reach Port Royal

French expedition exploring Port Royal showing habitat, wildlife, and Native encampment. Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇cia Gallis acciderunt, : secunda in illam nauigatione, duce... More

Theodor de Bry - They reach Port Royal

Theodor de Bry - They reach Port Royal

French expedition exploring Port Royal showing habitat, wildlife, and Native encampment. Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇cia Gallis acciderunt, : secunda in illam nauigatione, duce... More

[Village of Secotan] / T.B.

[Village of Secotan] / T.B.

Algonquian village on the Pamlico River estuary showing Native structures, agriculture, and spiritual life.

[Village of Secotan] / T.B.

[Village of Secotan] / T.B.

Algonquian village on the Pamlico River estuary showing Native structures, agriculture, and spiritual life.

[Florida Indians planting seeds of beans or maize]

[Florida Indians planting seeds of beans or maize]

Timucua men cultivating a field and Timucua women planting corn or beans. Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇cia Gallis acciderunt, secunda in illam nauigatione, duce Renato de Laudōn... More

[Florida Indians planting seeds of beans or maize]

[Florida Indians planting seeds of beans or maize]

Timucua men cultivating a field and Timucua women planting corn or beans. Illus. in: Brevis narratio eorvm qvæ in Florida Americæ provi̇cia Gallis acciderunt, secunda in illam nauigatione, duce Renato de Laudōn... More

Depart de Christophe Colomb / lith. de Turgis ; Casse freres a St. Gaudens.

Depart de Christophe Colomb / lith. de Turgis ; Casse freres a St. Gau...

Christopher Columbus and his crew leaving the port of Palos, Spain, for the New World; crowd of well wishers looks on. Title also in Spanish. No. 2.

Depart de Christophe Colomb / lith. de Turgis ; Casse freres a St. Gaudens.

Depart de Christophe Colomb / lith. de Turgis ; Casse freres a St. Gau...

Christopher Columbus and his crew leaving the port of Palos, Spain, for the New World; crowd of well wishers looks on. Title also in Spanish. No. 2.

[Praying around the fire with rattles]

[Praying around the fire with rattles]

Group of Natives gathered around a campfire, some appear to be holding rattles; dugout canoes on river in background.

[Praying around the fire with rattles]

[Praying around the fire with rattles]

Group of Natives gathered around a campfire, some appear to be holding rattles; dugout canoes on river in background.

Pagus Hispanorum in Florida.
T'Fort Nieuw Amsterdam op de Manhatans.
Een Mahakuase Indiaen, met hun Steden en woningen.
Een Virginiaen na hun manier gekleedt.
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