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History of Alexander

Alexander the Great was born in the Pella region of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia on July 20, 356 B.C., to parents King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus.

In 343 B.C., King Philip II hired the philosopher Aristotle to tutor Alexander at the Temple of the Nymphs at Meiza. After Alexander completed his education in 340 B.C., he became a soldier and embarked on his first military expedition. Since then, Alexander was constantly battling for his kingdom and its expansion.
Here is the list of his counterparts:
- Athenian and Theban armies at Chaeronea.
- Hith mother-in-law Cleopatra
- region of Thessaly
- Thracian Triballians
- City of Thebes
- Persian King Darius III'
- Gaza
- Egypt
- Persians
- Eastern Iran
- Northern India
While preparing the conquests of Carthage and Rome, Alexander the Great died of malaria in Babylon (now Iraq), on June 13, 323 B.C. He was just 32 years old. His empire collapsed. Later, cultures of Greece and the Orient synthesized and thrived as Panhellenism - a side effect of Alexander's empire.
Alexander's army from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 36v
1419
1419
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1893
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1893
165 Media in collectionpage 1 of 2
Alexander at the Temple from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 23

Alexander at the Temple from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 23

Detail of a miniature of Alexander, preceeded by priests, entering the Temple of Jerusalem. Image taken from f. 23 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixan... more

Battle with the Persians from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 30v

Battle with the Persians from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 30v

Detail of a miniature of the battle of Alexander with the Persians. Image taken from f. 30v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). ... more

Alexander's army from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 36v

Alexander's army from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 36v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's army before Darius' city. Image taken from f. 36v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Writt... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 60

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 60

Detail of a miniature of Alexander encountering a naked and houseless tribe (the gymnosophists). Image taken from f. 60 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy A... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 55v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 55v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander, at a river crossing, encountering women armed with maces. Image taken from f. 55v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Ali... more

Astronomy and geometry from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 3

Astronomy and geometry from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 3

Detail of a miniature of a landscape with clerks studying astronomy and geometry, holding an armillary sphere, a set square, and compasses. Image taken from f. 3 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (... more

Battle with a hippopotamus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 56

Battle with a hippopotamus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 56

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with a hippopotamus-like beast. Image taken from f. 56 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexa... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 57

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 57

Detail of a miniature of Alexander driving off elephants with pigs and musical instruments. Image taken from f. 57 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixan... more

Battle with sword-horned men from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 78

Battle with sword-horned men from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 78

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with sword-horned men. Image taken from f. 78 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Wr... more

Alexander crowned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 14

Alexander crowned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 14

Detail of a miniature of Alexander being crowned by two bishops. Image taken from f. 14 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Writ... more

Battle with a three-horned beast from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 51v

Battle with a three-horned beast from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 51v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with a three-horned beast and other strange animals. Image taken from f. 51v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy ... more

Ambria from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 75v

Ambria from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 75v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander entering the city of Ambria. Image taken from f. 75v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Writ... more

Alexander and the Amazons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 47v

Alexander and the Amazons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 47v

Miniature of the meeting between Alexander and the Amazons. Image taken from f. 47v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Candace and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 71v

Candace and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 71v

Miniature of Candace taking Alexander into her chamber and giving him a crown. Image taken from f. 71v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index A... more

Battle with two-headed dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 83v

Battle with two-headed dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 83v

Detail of a miniature of a battle with two-headed dragons. Image taken from f. 83v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander lowered into the sea from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 77v

Alexander lowered into the sea from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 77v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander lowered into the sea in a cask, along with a cat and a cock, at the beginning of chapter 65. Image taken from f. 77v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre e... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 40v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 40v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander praying that the mountains would close in upon a tribe of wicked savages. Image taken from f. 40v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire... more

Alexander being carried by griffins from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 76v

Alexander being carried by griffins from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 76v

Miniature of Alexander, in a cage, being carried aloft by griffins, and a foliate initial 'L'(ore) with a partial border, at the beginning of chapter 63. Image taken from f. 76v of Historia de proelis in a Fren... more

Jobas poisoning Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 88v

Jobas poisoning Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 88v

Detail of a miniature of Jobas serving Alexander with poisoned wine. Image taken from f. 88v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre).... more

Battle with one-eyed giants (cyclops) from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 79v

Battle with one-eyed giants (cyclops) from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 79v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with one-eyed giants (cyclops). Image taken from f. 79v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alex... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 66

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 66

Detail of a miniature of Alexander sleeping in bed out of doors, under the trees of the sun and the moon, with attendants and a a phoenix nearby in a tree. Image taken from f. 66 of Historia de proelis in a Fre... more

Alexander being carried by griffins from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 76v

Alexander being carried by griffins from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 76v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander, in a cage, being carried aloft by griffins. Image taken from f. 76v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index ... more

Alexander lowered into the sea from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 77v

Alexander lowered into the sea from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 77v

Miniature of Alexander being lowered into the sea in a cask, along with a cat and a cock, with a foliate initial 'L'(ore) and a partial border, at the beginning of chapter 65. Image taken from f. 77v of Histori... more

Alexander and the Amazons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 47v

Alexander and the Amazons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 47v

Detail of a miniature of the meeting between Alexander and the Amazons. Image taken from f. 47v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandr... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 50

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 50

Miniature of Alexander the Great slaying extraordinary creatures (dragons?). Image taken from f. 50 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alex... more

Alexander and his army from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 19v

Alexander and his army from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 19v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander and his army leaving Macedon, with the temple of Apollo on the right. Image taken from f. 19v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du ... more

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 4

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 4

Detail of a miniature of Nectanebus enthroned, receiving three messengers. Image taken from f. 4 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexand... more

Philip from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 15

Philip from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 15

Detail of a miniature of Philip enthroned, with a sword, receiving a Persian messenger. Image taken from f. 15 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)... more

Burial of Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 81

Burial of Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 81

Detail of a miniature of the burial of Bucephalus. Image taken from f. 81 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Olympias enthroned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 7

Olympias enthroned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 7

Detail of a miniature of Olympias enthroned, with attendants, and Nectanebus in a white robe with a case of astronomical instruments. Image taken from f. 7 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Liv... more

Battle with dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 49v

Battle with dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 49v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with dragons. Image taken from f. 49v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Philip from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 9v

Philip from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 9v

Detail of a miniature of Philip seated with a bird in his lap and a serpent and eggshell on the floor, surrounded by attendants, with an astronomer interpreting. Image taken from f. 9v of Historia de proelis in... more

Alexander and caladrius birds from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 83

Alexander and caladrius birds from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 83

Detail of a miniature of Alexander enthroned, presented with the caladrius birds, and a foliate initial 'Q'(uant) with a partial border, at the beginning of chapter 74. Image taken from f. 83 of Historia de pro... more

Surrender of a city from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 34

Surrender of a city from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 34

Detail of a miniature of the surrender of the keys to a city. Image taken from f. 34 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written... more

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 54

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 54

Detail of a miniature of Alexander killing Porrus. Image taken from f. 54 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander, Aristotle and Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 12

Alexander, Aristotle and Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 12

Detail of a miniature of Alexander and Aristotle, and Bucephalus being brought in by two attendants. Image taken from f. 12 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon r... more

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 53

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 53

Miniature of Alexander unhorsing Porrus. Image taken from f. 53 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Capture of Candaculus' wife from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 67v

Capture of Candaculus' wife from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 67v

Detail of a miniature of the capture of Candaculus' wife. Image taken from f. 67v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 24

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 24

Detail of a miniature of Alexander enthroned, receiving gifts sent by Darius. Image taken from f. 24 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Ale... more

Burning of a city from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 94v

Burning of a city from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 94v

Detail of a miniature of a city being burnt to prevent its capture by Perdiccas. Image taken from f. 94v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 58v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 58v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander talking to the strange women of the forest. Image taken from f. 58v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index A... more

Alexander and his fleet from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 20

Alexander and his fleet from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 20

Miniature of Alexander and his fleet about to set sail. Image taken from f. 20 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 8v

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 8v

Detail of a miniature of Nectanebus practicising enchantments of Olympias, who lies in bed. Image taken from f. 8v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixan... more

Aristotle and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 10v

Aristotle and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 10v

Detail of a miniature of Aristotle instructing Alexander and three other children in the schoolroom. Image taken from f. 10v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon ... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 62v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 62v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander erecting an inscribed column. Image taken from f. 62v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Wri... more

Battle with boars and savages from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 51

Battle with boars and savages from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 51

Miniature of Alexander's battle with boars and many-handed savages. Image taken from f. 51 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). W... more

Alexander, Aristotle and Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 12

Alexander, Aristotle and Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 12

Miniature of Alexander and Aristotle, and Bucephalus being brought in by two attendants. Image taken from f. 12 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre... more

Burial of Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 54v

Burial of Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 54v

Detail of a miniature of the burial of Porrus. Image taken from f. 54v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 66

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 66

Miniature of Alexander sleeping in bed out of doors, under the trees of the sun and the moon, with attendants and a a phoenix nearby in a tree. Image taken from f. 66 of Historia de proelis in a French translat... more

Destruction of Tyre from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 22

Destruction of Tyre from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 22

Detail of a miniature of the destruction of Tyre, and Alexander's fleet departing for Crete. Image taken from f. 22 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixa... more

Memorial to Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 82

Memorial to Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 82

Detail of a miniature of Alexander building a city as a memorial to his horse, Bucephalus. Image taken from f. 82 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixand... more

Alexander and elephants from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 82v

Alexander and elephants from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 82v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander presented with white elephants, at the beginning of chapter 73. Image taken from f. 82v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon ro... more

Battle against dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 73

Battle against dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 73

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle against dragons with emeralds in their foreheads. Image taken from f. 73 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alix... more

Building of Alexandria from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 21

Building of Alexandria from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 21

Detail of a miniature of the building of Alexandria. Image taken from f. 21 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Battle with lion-like beasts from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 80v

Battle with lion-like beasts from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 80v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with lion-like beasts. Image taken from f. 80v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). W... more

Defeat of Philip from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 16v

Defeat of Philip from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 16v

Detail of a miniature of the defeat of Philip by Pausanias. Image taken from f. 16v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Student reading from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 1

Student reading from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 1

Detail of a miniature of a student reading at a desk in a bedroom. Image taken from f. 1 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Wri... more

Battle with sheep-horned dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 78v

Battle with sheep-horned dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 78v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with sheep-horned dragons. Image taken from f. 78v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre... more

Alexander enthroned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 18v

Alexander enthroned from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 18v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander enthroned, conversing with his subjects. Image taken from f. 18v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alex... more

Battle with the Persians from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 33

Battle with the Persians from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 33

Detail of a miniature of the battle of Alexander with the Persians. Image taken from f. 33 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). W... more

Alexander and his fleet from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 20

Alexander and his fleet from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 20

Detail of a miniature of Alexander and his fleet about to set sail. Image taken from f. 20 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). W... more

Battle with giants from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 63

Battle with giants from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 63

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with giants. Image taken from f. 63 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Burial of Darius from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 38v

Burial of Darius from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 38v

Detail of a miniature of the burial of Darius. Image taken from f. 38v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Restoration of Candaculus' wife from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 68v

Restoration of Candaculus' wife from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 68v

Detail of a miniature of a city being captured and Candaculus' wife being restored. Image taken from f. 68v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(in... more

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 11

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 11

Detail of a miniature of Nectanebus outside a city instructing Alexander in astronomy, and Alexander pushin him into a pit. Image taken from f. 11 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le ... more

Battle with horse-headed men from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 79

Battle with horse-headed men from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 79

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with horse-headed men. Image taken from f. 79 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Wr... more

Battle with white lions from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 50v

Battle with white lions from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 50v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with white lions. Image taken from f. 50v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Writte... more

Candace and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 71v

Candace and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 71v

Detail of a miniature of Candace taking Alexander into her chamber and giving him a crown. Image taken from f. 71v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixan... more

Battle with boars and savages from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 51

Battle with boars and savages from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 51

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with boars and many-handed savages. Image taken from f. 51 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index A... more

Birth of a monstrous child from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 86v

Birth of a monstrous child from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 86v

Detail of a miniature of the birth of a monstrous child. Image taken from f. 86v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 89

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 89

Detail of a miniature of Alexander leaving the table. Image taken from f. 89 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Entry of Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 84

Entry of Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 84

Detail of a miniature of the triumphant entry of Alexander into Babylon. Image taken from f. 84 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandr... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 26v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 26v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander answering the envoys of Darius. Image taken from f. 26v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). W... more

Funeral of Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 92

Funeral of Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 92

Detail of a miniature of the funeral of Alexander. Image taken from f. 92 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Aristotle and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 10v

Aristotle and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 10v

Miniature of Aristotle instructing Alexander and three other children in the schoolroom, and Alexander being instructed by others outside. Image taken from f. 10v of Historia de proelis in a French translation ... more

Alexander defeating Pausanias from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 18

Alexander defeating Pausanias from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 18

Detail of a miniature of Alexander defeating Pausanias. Image taken from f. 18 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 29v

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 29v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander addressing his people. Image taken from f. 29v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Warriors and horses from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 53v

Warriors and horses from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 53v

Monochrome drawing of warriors and horses. Image taken from f. 53v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Capture of Pydna from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 97

Capture of Pydna from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 97

Detail of a miniature of the capture of Pydna and the murder of Olympias. Image taken from f. 97 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexand... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 65

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 65

Detail of a miniature of Alexander ascending to a mountain palace by a chain of gold. Image taken from f. 65 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(i... more

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 4v

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 4v

Detail of a miniature of Nectanebus in his chamber, enchanting a basin of water. Image taken from f. 4v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index ... more

Victory of Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 13v

Victory of Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 13v

Detail of a miniature of the victory of Alexander over Nicolaus. Image taken from f. 13v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Wri... more

Murder of Darius from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 38

Murder of Darius from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 38

Detail of a miniature of the murder of Darius. Image taken from f. 38 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Murderers of Darius from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 39v

Murderers of Darius from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 39v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander ordering the murderers of Darius to be bound. Image taken from f. 39v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index... more

Alexander and Olympias from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 27

Alexander and Olympias from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 27

Detail of a miniature of Olympias in bed, with Alexander holding her hand. Image taken from f. 27 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexan... more

Burial of Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 81

Burial of Bucephalus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 81

Miniature of the burial of Bucephalus. Image taken from f. 81 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 8v

Nectanebus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 8v

Miniature of Nectanebus practicising the enchantments of Olympias, who lies in bed. Image taken from f. 8v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(ind... more

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 50

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 50

Detail of a miniature of Alexander the Great slaying other extraordinary creatures (dragons?). Image taken from f. 50 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Ali... more

Alexander sending letters from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 85

Alexander sending letters from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 85

Detail of a miniature of Alexander sending letters. Image taken from f. 85 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Aristotle sending a letter from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 85v

Aristotle sending a letter from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 85v

Detail of a miniature of Aristotle sending a letter to Alexander. Image taken from f. 85v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Wr... more

Jobas poisoning Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 88v

Jobas poisoning Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 88v

Miniature of Jobas serving Alexander with poisoned wine, and an illuminated initial 'Q', with a foliate border. Image taken from f. 88v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hysto... more

Battle of Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 44v

Battle of Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 44v

Detail of a miniature of the battle between Alexander and Porrus. Image taken from f. 44v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Wr... more

Albanians from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 41v

Albanians from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 41v

Detail of a miniature of Albanians presenting Alexander with a dog, and the dog fighting an elephant and a lion. Image taken from f. 41v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hyst... more

Aristotle and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 10v

Aristotle and Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 10v

Detail of a miniature of Aristotle instructing Alexander and three other children in the schoolroom, and Alexander being instructed by others outside. Image taken from f. 10v of Historia de proelis in a French ... more

Alexander and the wild man from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 64

Alexander and the wild man from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 64

Detail of a miniature of Alexander burning a wild man. Image taken from f. 64 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Battle with blemmyae from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 80

Battle with blemmyae from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 80

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle with headless men with faces on their torsos (blemmyae). Image taken from f. 80 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon r... more

Battle with dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 49v

Battle with dragons from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 49v

Miniature of Alexander's battle with dragons. Image taken from f. 49v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 58

Alexander from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 58

Detail of a miniature of Alexander encountering strange women of the forest. Image taken from f. 58 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alex... more

Battle against wild bulls from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 73v

Battle against wild bulls from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 73v

Detail of a miniature of Alexander's battle against wild bulls. Image taken from f. 73v of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Writ... more

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 53

Alexander and Porrus from BL Royal 20 B XX, f. 53

Detail of a miniature of Alexander unhorsing Porrus. Image taken from f. 53 of Historia de proelis in a French translation (Le Livre et le vraye hystoire du bon roy Alixandre)(index Alexandre). Written in French.