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Ford

Henry Ford built his first automobile, which he called a quadricycle, at his home in Detroit in 1896. His first company called Detroit Automobile Company, founded in 1899 but failed soon. On June 16, 1903, the Ford Motor Company was incorporated. During its early years, the company produced a range of vehicles designated, chronologically, from the Ford Model A (1903) to the Model K and Model S of 1907. In 1908, Henry Ford introduced the Model T.

By 1913, Ford introduced the world's first moving assembly line that year, which reduced chassis assembly time from 12 1⁄2 hours in October to 2 hours 40 minutes (and ultimately 1 hour 33 minutes), and boosted annual output to 202,667 units that year. By 1920, production exceeds one million a year.

Turnover of workers was very high. In January 1914, Ford solved the problem by doubling pay to $5 a day, cutting shifts from nine hours to an eight-hour day. It increased sales: a line worker could buy a T with less than four months' pay, and instituting hiring practices that identified the best workers, including disabled people, considered unemployable by other firms. Employee turnover plunged, productivity soared, and with it, the cost per vehicle plummeted. Ford cut prices again and again and invented the system of franchised dealers who were loyal to his brand name.

Wall Street had criticized Ford's generous labor practices when he began paying workers enough to buy the products they made.
Ford Motor Co., Lincoln at Capitol, [Washington, D.C.]
1899
1899
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1970
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1970
567 Media in collectionpage 1 of 6

[Model T's coming off the assembly line at the Highland Park plant]

Photograph shows three men riding the skeleton of an automobile coming off the line with the rear wheels running on a revolving steel drum.

Early Ford automobile

Photograph shows Ford Model T automobile on display.

[Assembly line at the Ford Motor Company's Highland Park plant]

Photograph shows unfinished Model T's rolling on the assembly line.

N.A. Hawkins

Photograph shows N. A. Hawkins, an official of the Ford Motor Company, Detroit, who served as president of the National Salesmanship Congress. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2014)

Employees leaving the Ford Motor Company factory at Detroit, Mich.

Stereograph showing several workers leaving factory, some on foot others in cars.

At Ford tractor show

Three men in overcoats and hats in field of tractors.

At Ford tractor show

Two men coming from saw mills and wood saws exhibit tent at the tractor show, Washington, D.C.