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PICRYL

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European Armor

The full suit of armor is a feature of the very end of the Middle Ages and of the Renaissance period. Plate armor is a type of personal body armor made from iron or steel plates. By about 1420, complete suits of plate armor had been developed in Europe. It commonly seen in the Western European armies especially during the Hundred Years War, the Wars of the Roses or the Italian Wars. European leaders in armoring techniques were northern Italians, Milan, and southern Germans.

A full suit of plate armour would have consisted of a helmet, a gorget (or bevor), spaulders, pauldrons with guardbraces to cover the armpits as was seen in French armour, or besagews (also known as rondels) which were mostly used in Gothic Armour, rerebraces, couters, vambraces, gauntlets, a cuirass (back and breastplate) with a fauld, tassets and a culet, a mail skirt, cuisses, poleyns, greaves, and sabatons. The very fullest sets, known as garnitures, more often made for jousting than war, included pieces of exchange, alternate pieces suiting different purposes, so that the suit could be configured for a range of different uses, for example fighting on foot or on a horse. The armor was articulated and covered a man's entire body completely from neck to toe.

Full suits of Gothic plate armor were worn on the battlefields of the Burgundian and Italian Wars. The most heavily armored troops were heavy cavalries, such as the gendarmes and early cuirassiers.

The specialized jousting armor associated with the medieval knights developed in the 16th century. Maximilian armor of the early 16th century is a style using heavy fluting and some decorative etching, as opposed to the plainer finish on 15th-century white armor. The shapes include influence from Italian styles. This era also saw the use of closed helms, as opposed to the 15th-century-style sallets and barbutes. During the early 16th century the helmet and neck guard design were reformed to produce the so-called Nürnberg armor, many of them masterpieces of workmanship and design.


As firearms became better and more common on the battlefield the utility of full armor gradually declined. After 1650, due to the development of the flintlock musket, which could penetrate armor from a considerable distance, plate armor was reduced to the simple breastplate (cuirass) worn by cuirassiers.

The decoration of fine armour greatly increased in the period. Such work required armorers to either collaborate with artists. Daniel Hopfer was an etcher of armour by training, who developed etching as a form of printmaking. Other artists such as Hans Holbein the Younger produced designs for armor. The Milanese armorer Filippo Negroli, from a leading dynasty of armorers, was the most famous modeller of figurative relief decoration on armor.
Helm for the Joust of Peace (Stechhelm)
1249
1249
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2016
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2016
317 Media in collectionpage 2 of 4
Left Gauntlet

Left Gauntlet

This left gauntlet and the associated armor (26.92.1, 38.128.1) form a fine late example of a fluted armor, made shortly before the style went out of fashion. It is distinguished for its unusually large proport... more

Crinet

Crinet

Decorated with narrow bands etched with delicate foliate scrolls, this crinet once formed part of a horse armor made for one of the co-ruling counts palatine; Ottheinrich (1502–1559) and Philipp (1503–1548). Va... more

Helmet

Helmet

This helmet and the armor to which it belongs (26.92.1, 38.128.2) form a fine late example of a fluted armor, made shortly before the style went out of fashion. It is distinguished for its unusually large propo... more

Armor

Armor

This is a fine late example of a fluted armor, made shortly before the style went out of fashion. It is distinguished for its unusually large proportions and impressive height. The bands of scales and the disti... more

Armor

Armor

This is a fine late example of a fluted armor, made shortly before the style went out of fashion. It is distinguished for its unusually large proportions and impressive height. The bands of scales and the disti... more

Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense) of Henry II of France, When Dauphin

Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense) of Henry II of France, When Dauphin

In the Renaissance, elaborate parade armor of fanciful design was often employed in tournaments, ceremonial entries, and court pageants. This shaffron, shaped as a fierce dragon's head, was made at the end of t... more

Burgonet

Burgonet

probably Augsburg

Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense) with arms of the Freyberg family

Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense) with arms of the Freyberg family

This shaffron is fitted with an escutcheon plate bearing the arms of the barons of Freyberg. It comes from the armory at Hohenaschau Castle in Bavaria, the seat of that noble family, and probably belonged to Pa... more

Burgonet
Breastplate

Breastplate

Formerly part of a parade armor, this breastplate is the only signed work of Giovan Paolo Negroli, a cousin of the more famous Filippo. Now bright, the breastplate's surface originally was russet-colored, and t... more

Brigandine
Burgonet

Burgonet

This masterpiece of Renaissance metalwork is signed on the browplate by Filippo Negroli, whose embossed armor was praised by sixteenth-century writers as "miraculous" and deserving "immortal merit." Formed of o... more

Two Ear Guards from a Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense) of Emperor Charles V (1500–1558)

Two Ear Guards from a Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense) of Emperor Charl...

These detached ear guards belong to a shaffron from the most famous of Charles V's (1500–1558) armors, the so-called Mühlberg garniture (after the Battle of Mühlberg––April 24, 1547––at which the emperor wore p... more

Field Armor of King Henry VIII 
of England (reigned 1509–47)

Field Armor of King Henry VIII of England (reigned 1509–47)

This impressive armor was made for Henry VIII (reigned 1509–47) toward the end of his life, when he was overweight and crippled with gout. Constructed for use both on horse and on foot, it was probably worn by ... more

Pair of Gauntlets from a Garniture of Armor of Philip II of Spain (reigned 1554–58)

Pair of Gauntlets from a Garniture of Armor of Philip II of Spain (rei...

The armor garniture to which these gauntlets belong is now divided between the Real Armería in Madrid and the former imperial armory in Vienna. Desiderius Helmschmid (German, Augsburg, 1513–1579) Augsburg

Horse Armor Made for Johann Ernst, Duke of Saxony-Coburg (1521–1553)

Horse Armor Made for Johann Ernst, Duke of Saxony-Coburg (1521–1553)

Kunz Lochner was one of the few Nuremberg armorers of the mid-sixteenth century to achieve an international reputation. His patrons included the Holy Roman Emperor, the dukes of Saxony, and the king of Poland. ... more

Reinforce for a Helmet (Gupfe)

Reinforce for a Helmet (Gupfe)

This exquisitely decorated plate fit as a reinforce over the bowl of a helmet for the tournament on foot. It belongs to an armor made for Maximilian II (1527–1576, emperor from 1564) upon his election as king o... more

Armor of Emperor Ferdinand I (1503–1564)

Armor of Emperor Ferdinand I (1503–1564)

The ownership of this armor by Ferdinand I (1503–1564) is indicated by the heraldic emblems on the toe caps: the imperial double-headed eagle surmounted by a royal crown, which signifies Ferdinand’s honorific s... more

Burgonet

Burgonet

In the mid-sixteenth century, armor covered with embossed figures and ornament in the Mannerist style was the specialty of Italian armorers such as the Negroli family of Milan and also of a few workshops in Fra... more

Armet
Armor for Field and Tilt

Armor for Field and Tilt

This garniture is unusually large. It contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The tilt was a tournament fought on horseback between two opponents armed with l... more

Burgonet of the Guard of Pope Julius III

Burgonet of the Guard of Pope Julius III

The medallions decorating each side show a profile portrait of Pope Julius III (Giovanni Maria del Monte, 1487–1555, elected pope in 1550). This helmet is a precursor to the Brescian-made armor traditionally wo... more

Gauntlet for the Right Hand

Gauntlet for the Right Hand

This gauntlet is finely decorated with trophies or panoplies of arms, consisting of armor parts, weapons, musical instruments, and ribbons arranged in bands and set on a dotted ground. These motifs exist in man... more

Burgonet
Composed Armor

Composed Armor

This armor is composed of elements from three different armors, all made in southern Germany for Spanish patrons. The helmet, arm defenses, gauntlets, and leg defenses belong to a large garniture made in 1554 f... more

Burgonet

Burgonet

The medallions on either side of the bowl are embossed with scenes from Greek mythology depicting the Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths, a popular subject in Renaissance art. The compositions derive in part from d... more

Composed Armor

Composed Armor

This armor is composed of elements from three different armors, all made in southern Germany for Spanish patrons. The helmet, arm defenses, gauntlets, and leg defenses belong to a large garniture made in 1554 f... more

Close Helmet

Close Helmet

The fantastic appearance of this helmet, with its visor shaped like a griffin's head and the comb of the bowl raised into the form of a serpent's body, indicates that it was part of an elaborate pageant armor. ... more

Reinforcing Plates of Armor for the Tilt

Reinforcing Plates of Armor for the Tilt

For the joust, or tilt, in the Italian fashion, the grandguard protecting the upper left chest and neck was close-fitting in contrast to the German use of a projecting tilt targe (cape-like defense for the left... more

Reinforcing Plates of Armor for the Tilt

Reinforcing Plates of Armor for the Tilt

For the joust, or tilt, in the Italian fashion, the grandguard protecting the upper left chest and neck was close-fitting in contrast to the German use of a projecting tilt targe (cape-like defense for the left... more

Close Helmet for the Tourney

Close Helmet for the Tourney

The ornament on the comb is copied from a design by the Augsburg printmaker and armor etcher Daniel Hopfer (ca. 1470–1536), whose published prints were very influential in the development of a recognizably Augs... more

Crinet Plate Belonging to an Armor for Field and Tournament Made for Duke Nikolaus "The Black" Radziwill (1515–1565), Duke of Nesvizh and Olyka, Prince of the Empire, Grand Chancellor and Marshal of Lithuaniac

Crinet Plate Belonging to an Armor for Field and Tournament Made for D...

Kunz Lochner (German, Nuremberg, 1510–1567) Nuremberg

Armor of Henry II, King of France (reigned 1547–59)

Armor of Henry II, King of France (reigned 1547–59)

This is one of the most elaborate and complete French parade armors, and it retains much of its original coloring. The surfaces are covered by dense foliate scrolls inhabited by human figures and a variety of f... more

Close Helmet of Claude Gouffier (1501–1570)

Close Helmet of Claude Gouffier (1501–1570)

This is an excellent example of a French heavy cavalry helmet of the mid-sixteenth century. Its elaborate decoration includes the monogram of Claude Gouffier (1501–1570), Master of the Horse (Grand Écuyer) for ... more

Right Poleyn (Knee Defense) from an Armor of Claude Gouffier (1501–1570)

Right Poleyn (Knee Defense) from an Armor of Claude Gouffier (1501–157...

This is the only known fragment from what once must have been a magnificent French parade armor. The knee (or poleyn) consists of a main plate covering the kneecap with a heart-shaped wing on the outer side, wi... more

Burgonet with Buffe

Burgonet with Buffe

The elegant shape and beautiful decoration of this helmet suggest that it was made in Italy under French influence. The unusually tall and backward-leaning comb along the top of the helmet, the form and attachm... more

Shield of Henry II of France (reigned 1547–59)

Shield of Henry II of France (reigned 1547–59)

The battle scene at the center is thought to depict the victory of Hannibal and the Carthaginians over the Romans in Cannae in 216 B.C., which here could be interpreted as an allusion to the struggle of France ... more

Elements of an Armor Garniture

Elements of an Armor Garniture

Attributed to Wolfgang Grosschedel (German, Landshut, active ca. 1517–62) Landshut

Gauntlet for the Left Hand

Gauntlet for the Left Hand

The decoration of this gauntlet matches that of a complete armor (now in the Art History Museum, Vienna) that was made for Archduke Maximilian (later Emperor Maximilian II) in 1557. The applied bands of gilt co... more

Burgonet (Zischägge)

Burgonet (Zischägge)

Made in Germany at a time of ongoing struggle with, and yet widespread fascination for, the Ottoman Empire, this horseman’s helmet is a singularly well-preserved example of a distinctive style of central Europe... more

Armor
Comb Morion

Comb Morion

This helmet is an outstanding example of parade armor made in northern Germany for the court of Duke Heinrich the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (r. 1514–68) and his son Julius (r. 1568–89). Characteristic o... more

Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense)

Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense)

This shaffron is of an unusual construction that appears to be consciously imitative of Turkish armor of the period, which was made of multiple small plates of iron attached by mail to form a very flexible defe... more

Armor

Armor

This is one of a group of finely etched armors made for the court of Duke Julius of Brunswick-Wölfenbüttel (1528–1589). The armors are decorated similarly with satyrs, allegorical figures, and grotesques, many ... more

Half Armor Probably Made for Don Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba y Fernández de Córdoba, Duke of Sessa (1520/1524–1578)

Half Armor Probably Made for Don Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba y Fernán...

Attributed to Lucio Piccinino (Italian, Milan, active ca. 1575–90) Milan

Close Helmet from a Garniture Made for a Member of the d'Avalos Family

Close Helmet from a Garniture Made for a Member of the d'Avalos Family

This helmet was originally part of a complete field armor made for a member of the d’Avalos family, probably Ferrante Francesco d’Avalos (1531–1571), marquis of Vasto, who served the king of Spain as governor o... more

Pommel Plate

Pommel Plate

The etched decoration of this pommel plate, consisting of interlaced strapwork enclosing heraldically displayed eagles, is very similar to that on an armor in the Hofjagd- und Rüstkammer, Vienna, which was made... more

Helmet

Helmet

This helmet was forged from watered steel and decorated in gold with arabesques and Koranic inscriptions. It is very similar to one now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, made about 1560 for a grand vizie... more

Field and Tournament Armor 
of Johann Wilhelm (1530–1573), 
Duke of Saxe-Weimar

Field and Tournament Armor of Johann Wilhelm (1530–1573), Duke of Sa...

This armor consists of a mixture of pieces from a large and complex garniture for use in the field and in various forms of tournament. Its principal parts are now divided between the Historisches Museum, Dresde... more

Reinforcing Breastplate, Shoulder Defense, and Buffe (Chin Defense)

Reinforcing Breastplate, Shoulder Defense, and Buffe (Chin Defense)

These reinforcing pieces is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The tilt was a tourn... more

Large Elbow Reinforce (Soprabacciale)

Large Elbow Reinforce (Soprabacciale)

This large elbow reinforce (soprabacciale) is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. Th... more

Armor for Field and Tilt

Armor for Field and Tilt

This garniture is unusually large. It contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The tilt was a tournament fought on horseback between two opponents armed with l... more

Small Elbow Reinforce

Small Elbow Reinforce

This small elbow reinforce is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The tilt was a tou... more

Trellised Targe (Shield)

Trellised Targe (Shield)

This trellised targe (shield) is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The tilt was a ... more

Breastplate from an Armor of Francesco Maria II della Rovere (1548–1631), Duke of Urbino

Breastplate from an Armor of Francesco Maria II della Rovere (1548–163...

This breastplate belongs to an armor made for Francesco Maria II della Rovere (1548–1631), duke of Urbino from 1574. The armor is represented in a portrait of the prince painted by Federico Barocci soon after F... more

Armet
Vamplate

Vamplate

This vamplate is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The tilt was a tournament fough... more

Reinforcing Abdominal Defense

Reinforcing Abdominal Defense

This reinforcing abdonimnal defense is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The tilt ... more

Manifer (Reinforced Left Gauntlet)

Manifer (Reinforced Left Gauntlet)

This manifer (reinforced left gauntlet) is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The t... more

Pair of Greaves (Lower Leg Defenses)

Pair of Greaves (Lower Leg Defenses)

This pair of greaves (lower leg defenses) is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The... more

Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense)

Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense)

The fine quality of the hammer-work, the elegant form, and the decorative washers and plume-holder of brass are stylistic features pointing to an Augsburg origin. The shaffron probably was made to accompany a p... more

Set of Saddle Steels

Set of Saddle Steels

This complete set of saddle steels is part of an unusually large armor garniture (acc. no. 27.159.1), which contains pieces for use in battle and for the tilt in both the Italian and German fashions. The tilt w... more

Half-Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense)

Half-Shaffron (Horse's Head Defense)

This shaffron matches an Italian armor for man in the Metropolitan Museum (acc. no. 14.25.717) that is today mounted on horseback as part of the equestrian group in the main hall of the Arms and Armor Galleries... more

Collar Plate for a Helmet of Henry III of France (1551–1589)

Collar Plate for a Helmet of Henry III of France (1551–1589)

This collar plate belongs to a helmet (now in the Musée de l'Armée, Paris) that was made for the future Henry III of France (reigned 1574–89). The grotesque decoration in low relief is similar to that on the ar... more

Close Helmet for the Tilt

Close Helmet for the Tilt

The helmet is part of a richly decorated armor made for one of the princes Radziwill of Poland for use in the field and the tournament. The Polish eagle appears in the etched ornament; the date 1573 is etched o... more

Shield of Sir John Smythe (1534–1607)

Shield of Sir John Smythe (1534–1607)

This beautifully decorated shield belonged to a small garniture made for the Elizabethan courtier Sir John Smythe (1534–1607). Most of the garniture appears to have been made in Augsburg, though additional piec... more

Model for a portrait medal of Augustus, Elector of Saxony

Model for a portrait medal of Augustus, Elector of Saxony

This stone model for a medal bears a portrait of Augustus, Elector of Saxony (1526 – 1586). Famous for his collections, including the finest assemblage of arms and armor in Northern Europe, Augustus founded the... more

Design for the Pommel Plate of a Saddle from a Garniture of Alessandro Farnese (1545–1592)

Design for the Pommel Plate of a Saddle from a Garniture of Alessandro...

This preparatory drawing depicts the front saddle steel of one of the most lavishly decorated armor garnitures of the sixteenth century, made for Alessandro Farnese (1545–1592), duke of Parma and Piacenza. The ... more

Portions of a Ceremonial Armor

Portions of a Ceremonial Armor

This armor was severely damaged by fire in the 1870s, destroying its gorget (collar) and arm defenses and melting off the gilding that originally covered all its exterior surfaces. Despite this damage, the rema... more

Helmet, Breastplate, and Backplate

Helmet, Breastplate, and Backplate

Although inspired by French examples, the ornament of this armor is distinctly Flemish. This is the only recorded work by Lochorst, possibly a goldsmith rather than an armorer, whose signature is found on the b... more

Armor of the Dukes of Alba

Armor of the Dukes of Alba

This is one of the few armors attributable to Lucio Piccinino, the last of the great Italian armor embossers. Distinctive of Piccinino's style is the covering of the armor surface with a dense network of emboss... more

Armor for Field and Tournament

Armor for Field and Tournament

This richly decorated armor is a mix of components from a large garniture for battle and tournament use. The close helmet and arm defenses are for the tilt, a joust in which a barrier separated two mounted cont... more

Portions of a Ceremonial Armor

Portions of a Ceremonial Armor

This armor was severely damaged by fire in the 1870s, destroying its gorget (collar) and arm defenses and melting off the gilding that originally covered all its exterior surfaces. Despite this damage, the rema... more

Portions of a Parade Armor

Portions of a Parade Armor

When complete, this horseman's armor would have included defenses for the arms and legs and perhaps a matching shaffron (horse's head defense) and saddle. The high-relief ornament, originally decorated with gol... more

Gauntlet for the Right Hand, Belonging to the Armor of Don Alonzo Pérez de Guzman el Bueno (1550–1619), Count of Niebla and Duke of Medina-Sidonia

Gauntlet for the Right Hand, Belonging to the Armor of Don Alonzo Pére...

The gauntlet's elaborately chiseled and damascened decoration exemplifies the highest quality of late Renaissance Milanese metalworking. The owner's crowned monogram on the cuff identifies the gauntlet as belon... more

Armor for the Tilt

Armor for the Tilt

This armor has an elegant sculptural quality that is characteristic of the finest Augsburg armors. It is identical in appearance to a series of tournament armors ordered by the duke of Bavaria in 1579–80 from A... more

Jousting Armor (Rennzeug) 
and Matching Half-Shaffron

Jousting Armor (Rennzeug) and Matching Half-Shaffron

This armor was intended for use in the Scharfrennen, a joust fought in an open field by two contestants mounted on horses and armed with relatively sharp lances. The sport remained popular at the court of the p... more

Horse Armor Probably Made for Count  Antonio IV Collalto (1548–1620)

Horse Armor Probably Made for Count Antonio IV Collalto (1548–1620)

The horse armor is covered with etched ornament that includes undulating foliage, mythological creatures, winged putti, and heroes from Biblical and Classical history, such as David and Goliath and Marcus Curti... more

Armor for the Tilt

Armor for the Tilt

This armor has an elegant sculptural quality that is characteristic of the finest Augsburg armors. It is identical in appearance to a series of tournament armors ordered by the duke of Bavaria in 1579–80 from A... more

Pommel Plate

Pommel Plate

Very few saddle steels are decorated with embossed ornament including figural representations or narrative scenes. The densely detailed style of this pommel plate is a notable example, allowing it to be identif... more

Jousting Armor (Rennzeug) 
and Matching Half-Shaffron

Jousting Armor (Rennzeug) and Matching Half-Shaffron

This armor was intended for use in the Scharfrennen, a joust fought in an open field by two contestants mounted on horses and armed with relatively sharp lances. The sport remained popular at the court of the p... more

Jousting Armor

Jousting Armor

Left Vambrace attributed to Anton Peffenhauser (German, Augsburg, 1525–1603) Augsburg

Elements from a Garniture Made for Christian I of Saxony (1560–1591)

Elements from a Garniture Made for Christian I of Saxony (1560–1591)

Peffenhauser was among the most celebrated and long-lived armorers of Augsburg, a city famous for its armor-makers. The pieces displayed here are thought to be part of a garniture commissioned by Elector August... more

Pair of Gauntlets

Pair of Gauntlets

These small gauntlets belong to an armor for foot tournament made for the seven-year-old heir to the Spanish throne, the future Philip III (1578–1621, king from 1598). The decoration is typically Milanese, with... more

Armor of Henry Herbert (1534–1601), Second Earl of Pembroke

Armor of Henry Herbert (1534–1601), Second Earl of Pembroke

This armor was made for Henry Herbert (1534–1601) in the royal workshops at Greenwich. Originally, it consisted of a garniture for field and tournament. The present burgonet (helmet) and falling buffe (face def... more

Pair of Gauntlets for a Child

Pair of Gauntlets for a Child

These gauntlets belong to an armor presented by the Spanish governor of Milan to the future Philip III of Spain (1578–1621, reigned from 1598). Lucio Piccinino (Italian, Milan, active ca. 1575–90) Milan

Armor Garniture of George Clifford (1558–1605), 
Third Earl of Cumberland

Armor Garniture of George Clifford (1558–1605), Third Earl of Cumberl...

George Clifford (1558–1605) was appointed Queen’s Champion in 1590 and was made a Knight of the Garter two years later. He is best remembered for his capture of the Spanish fort in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in 159... more

Terminal Lame of a Grand Guard from the Armor Garniture of George Clifford (1558–1605), 
Third Earl of Cumberland

Terminal Lame of a Grand Guard from the Armor Garniture of George Clif...

Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608) Greenwich

Right Thigh and Knee Defense (Cuisse and Poleyn) for the Armor of Sir John 
Scudamore (1541 or 1542–1623)

Right Thigh and Knee Defense (Cuisse and Poleyn) for the Armor of Sir ...

Sir John Scudamore (1541 or 1542–1623) was appointed a Gentleman Pensioner by Queen Elizabeth I (reigned 1558–1603) in 1571 or 1572 and knighted in 1592. This thigh and knee defense belongs to an armor (acc. no... more

Armor of Giovanni Battista Bourbon del Monte (1541–1614)

Armor of Giovanni Battista Bourbon del Monte (1541–1614)

Del Monte (1541–1614) was a mercenary soldier who at various times served the emperor, the pope, the kings of Spain and France, and the Venetian Republic. This armor dates from the period of del Monte’s service... more

Foot-Combat Armor of Prince-Elector
 Christian I of Saxony (reigned 1586–91)

Foot-Combat Armor of Prince-Elector Christian I of Saxony (reigned 15...

This is one of a set of twelve matching armors for use in foot combat commissioned in 1591 by Sophie of Brandenburg as a Christmas gift for her husband, Christian I (reigned 1586–91). These armors are among the... more

Armor of Sir James Scudamore (1558–1619)

Armor of Sir James Scudamore (1558–1619)

Sir James Scudamore (1558–1619) was a prominent Elizabethan soldier and courtier. Also an enthusiastic jouster, he was praised in Edmund Spenser’s Faerie Queene (published 1596) as an example of chivalry person... more

Backplate of an Armor for Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627)

Backplate of an Armor for Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627)

This backplate is part of a light-cavalry or infantry armor made for the Neapolitan nobleman Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627), count of Altavilla and prince of Riccia. The related breastplate, also in the Metr... more

Portions of an Armor for
 Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627)

Portions of an Armor for Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627)

These elements form part of a light-cavalry or infantry armor made for the Neapolitan nobleman Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627), count of Altavilla and prince of Riccia. The breastplate bears his personal impr... more

Portions of an Armor for
 Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627)

Portions of an Armor for Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627)

These elements form part of a light-cavalry or infantry armor made for the Neapolitan nobleman Vincenzo Luigi di Capua (d. 1627), count of Altavilla and prince of Riccia. The breastplate bears his personal impr... more