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Emmeline Pankhurst (1858—1928)

British social and political activist, defender of women's rights, leader of the British suffragette movement, played an important role in the struggle for women's suffrage.Created by: PICRYL - Public Domain Media Search EngineDated: 1858
Emmeline Goulden was born on 14 July 1858 in Manchester into a family with a tradition of radical politics. In 1879, she married Richard Pankhurst, a lawyer and supporter of the women's suffrage movement. He was the author of the Married Women's Property Acts of 1870 and 1882, which allowed women to keep earnings or property acquired before and after marriage. His death in 1898 was a great shock to Emmeline.

In 1889, Emmeline founded the Women's Franchise League, which fought to allow married women to vote in local elections. In October 1903, she helped found the more militant Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) - an organisation that gained much notoriety for its activities and whose members were the first to be christened 'suffragettes'. Emmeline's daughters Christabel and Sylvia were both active in the cause. British politicians, press and public were astonished by the demonstrations, window smashing, arson and hunger strikes of the suffragettes. In 1913, WSPU member Emily Davison was killed when she threw herself under the king's horse at the Derby as a protest at the government's continued failure to grant women the right to vote.

Like many suffragettes, Emmeline was arrested on numerous occasions over the next few years and went on hunger strike herself, resulting in violent force-feeding. In 1913, in response to the wave of hunger strikes, the government passed what became known as the 'Cat and Mouse' Act. Hunger striking prisoners were released until they grew strong again, and then re-arrested.

This period of militancy was ended abruptly on the outbreak of war in 1914, when Emmeline turned her energies to supporting the war effort. In 1918, the Representation of the People Act gave voting rights to women over 30. Emmeline died on 14 June 1928, shortly after women were granted equal voting rights with men (at 21).
34 Media in collectionpage 1 of 1
Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905-1910.

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905-1910.

7JCC/O/02/114.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Christabel Pankhurst in a garden, head and shoulders, left profile; printed inscription on reverse 'Please acknowledge copyright - Record Press, 29 Fetter L... More

Pankhurst, Emmeline, 1907-1912.

Pankhurst, Emmeline, 1907-1912.

TWL.2002.119.Postcard, printed, cardboard, monochrome photographic studio portrait of Emmeline Pankhurst, seated, head and shoulders, front-profile, oval, white border, black text, printed inscription front: 'M... More

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905. - Public domain portrait print

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905. - Public domain portrait print

7JCC/O/02/126.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome studio portrait of Christabel Pankhurst in academic dress, full length, front profile; manuscript inscription on image '1905', on reverse '1906'

Emmeline Pankhurst and Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy, 1908.

Emmeline Pankhurst and Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy, 1908.

7JCC/O/02/019.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Emmeline Pankhurst and Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy standing in front of a large fabric banner ('MRS PANKHURST FOUND.. Champion of Womanhood FAMED FAR FOR DE... More

Emmeline Pethick Lawrence and Christabel Pankhurst, c.1908-1912.

Emmeline Pethick Lawrence and Christabel Pankhurst, c.1908-1912.

7JCC/O/02/125a.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Emmeline Pethick Lawrence and Christabel Pankhurst surrounded by a crowd, about to get into a car; printed inscription on reverse 'Copyright Newspaper Illu... More

Annie Kenney and Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905-1912.

Annie Kenney and Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905-1912.

7JCC/O/02/122.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Annie Kenney and Christabel Pankhurst standing beside each other in hats and coats, head and shoulders, front profiles

Procession of released prisoners, 1909.

Procession of released prisoners, 1909.

7JCC/O/02/071Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, procession of women in white each carrying a pole topped by an arrow head, among them Christabel Pankhurst in academic robes, Emmeline Pethick Lawrence, Emme... More

Emmeline Pankhurst as a young girl, 1870s.

Emmeline Pankhurst as a young girl, 1870s.

7JCC/O/02/088.Photograph, modern reproduction, printed, paper, monochrome, studio portrait of Emmeline Pankhurst leaning against the back of a chair, three quarter length, right profile; printed below image 'Ab... More

Evelina Haverfield and Emmeline Pankhurst in court, c.1909.

Evelina Haverfield and Emmeline Pankhurst in court, c.1909.

7JCC/O/02/059.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, general view of a crowded courtroom with Evelina Haverfield and Emmeline Pankhurst seated in the dock at Bow Street Magistrates' Court; manuscript inscripti... More

Mrs. Pankhurst, George Grantham Bain Collection

Mrs. Pankhurst, George Grantham Bain Collection

Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress). Title from unverified data provided by the Bain News Service on the negatives or caption cards. General information about the George Grantha... More

Emmeline Pankhurst and supporters at Elgin, c.1907.

Emmeline Pankhurst and supporters at Elgin, c.1907.

7JCC/O/02/075.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Emmeline Pankhurst seated in a group of women on steps outside a house. The photograph is a modern reproduction of TWL.2009.02.131a, in which a number of th... More

Suffragette leaders at a Women's Social & Political Union (WSPU) reception, c.1908-1912.

Suffragette leaders at a Women's Social & Political Union (WSPU) recep...

7JCC/O/02/025Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Emmeline Pankhurst, Emmeline Pethick Lawrence, Annie Kenney and others by a table laid for a meal, with others in the background; manuscript inscriptions on ... More

Photograph of Emmeline Pankhurst, seated

Photograph of Emmeline Pankhurst, seated

Picryl description: Public domain vintage artistic portrait photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image.

Emmeline Pankhurst, 1907-1912. - Public domain portrait print

Emmeline Pankhurst, 1907-1912. - Public domain portrait print

7JCC/O/01/017Postcard, printed, monochrome photographic studio portrait of Emmeline Pankhurst, seated, head and shoulders, front-profile, oval, white border, black text, printed inscription front: 'Mrs Pankhurs... More

The arrest of Flora Drummond, Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, 1908.

The arrest of Flora Drummond, Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, 1908.

7JCC/O/02/064.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Flora Drummond, Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst being arrested by Inspector Jarvis at the Women's Social & Political Union offices, 13 Oct 1908; printed i... More

The Pankhursts on the roof at Clements Inn, 1908.

The Pankhursts on the roof at Clements Inn, 1908.

7JCC/O/02/121.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Christabel Pankhurst and Emmeline Pankhurst seated in deck chairs in a roof garden; manuscript inscription in Grace Roe's writing on reverse 'Hiding from po... More

Suffragette Procession, 1911. - Public domain demonstration print

Suffragette Procession, 1911. - Public domain demonstration print

7JCC/O/01/055Photographic postcard, printed, paper, monochrome, suffragette process taken from above, Christabel Pankhurst in a white dress and academic robes walking ahead of a banner '690 IMPRISONMENTS TO WIN... More

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905-1910.

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905-1910.

7JCC/O/02/113a.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome studio portrait of Christabel Pankhurst, head and shoulders, right profile, wearing a dress with pleated yoke; printed inscription on reverse 'Underwood & U... More

Meeting of Women's Social & Political Union (WSPU) leaders, c.1906 - c.1907.

Meeting of Women's Social & Political Union (WSPU) leaders, c.1906 - c...

7JCC/O/02/109.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Flora Drummond, Christabel Pankhurst, Annie Kenny, Emmeline Pankhurst, Charlotte Despard with two others, working round a kitchen table; printed inscription... More

Emmeline Pethick Lawrence and Christabel Pankhurst, c.1908-c.1912.

Emmeline Pethick Lawrence and Christabel Pankhurst, c.1908-c.1912.

7JCC/O/02/125b.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Emmeline Pethick Lawrence and Christabel Pankhurst surrounded by a crowd, about to get into a car; printed inscript... More

Christabel Pankhurst, Flora Drummond and Emmeline Pankhurst in court, 1908.

Christabel Pankhurst, Flora Drummond and Emmeline Pankhurst in court, ...

7JCC/O/02/061.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Christabel Pankhurst, Flora Drummond and Emmeline Pankhurst in the dock at Bow Street; manuscript inscriptions on reverse 'No. 17. Mrs/Miss Pankhurst in the... More

Emmeline Pankhurst with [Harry], c.1890.

Emmeline Pankhurst with [Harry], c.1890.

7JCC/O/02/089.Photograph, modern reproduction, printed, paper, monochrome, studio portrait of Emmeline Pankhurst holding an infant on her knee; printed below image 'Bowen, Photo. Lytham', manuscript inscription... More

Sylvia Pankhurst - Public domain portrait photograph

Sylvia Pankhurst - Public domain portrait photograph

A black and white photo of a woman in a hat and coat. Public domain portrait photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Outside Bow Street Magistrates' Court, c.1908-1914.

Outside Bow Street Magistrates' Court, c.1908-1914.

7JCC/O/02/052.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, a crowd of men and women with large numbers of policemen outside the door of Bow Street Magistrates' Court; manuscript inscription on reverse 'Bow Street. C... More

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1908-c.1909.

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1908-c.1909.

7JCC/O/02/112.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Christabel Pankhurst standing outside in front of a blanket suspended on a string, holding one hand in the air; manuscript inscription in ink on the front '... More

Emmeline Pankhurst, Honorable Sec. National Women's Social and Political Union, photo postcard

Emmeline Pankhurst, Honorable Sec. National Women's Social and Politic...

Public domain portrait photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Emmeline Pankhurst, c.1880s. - Public domain portrait print

Emmeline Pankhurst, c.1880s. - Public domain portrait print

7JCC/O/02/091.Photograph, modern reproduction, printed, paper, monochrome, studio portrait of Emmeline Pankhurst, head and shoulders, three quarters profile; manuscript inscription on reverse 'Mrs E Pankhurst when young'

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905-1910.

Christabel Pankhurst, c.1905-1910.

7JCC/O/02/113b.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome studio portrait of Christabel Pankhurst, a modern reproduction of 7JCC/O/2/113a

Emmeline Pethick Lawrence and Christabel Pankhurst, c.1908-1912.

Emmeline Pethick Lawrence and Christabel Pankhurst, c.1908-1912.

7JCC/O/02/124.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Emmeline Pethick Lawrence, Christabel Pankhurst and two others walking along a street; on reverse: manuscript inscription 'Mrs P Lawrence & Miss C Pankhurst... More

Christabel Pankhurst, Flora Drummond and Emmeline Pankhurst in court, 1908.

Christabel Pankhurst, Flora Drummond and Emmeline Pankhurst in court, ...

7JCC/O/02/060.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Christabel Pankhurst, Flora Drummond and Emmeline Pankhurst seated in the dock in a crowded courtroom; manuscript inscriptions on reverse '1908 Bow St. For ... More

Flora Drummond, Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, 1908.
Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst in mock prison garb, 1908.

Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst in mock prison garb, 1908.

7JCC/O/02/070.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst standing arm in arm, dressed in mock prison garb; manuscript inscription on reverse 'Mrs and Miss Pankhurst. Return this o... More

Christabel Pankhurst, George Grantham Bain Collection

Christabel Pankhurst, George Grantham Bain Collection

Photo shows English suffragist Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst (1880-1958) who was a co-founder of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU). (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2010) Title from data provi... More

Emmeline Pankhurst and Emmeline Pethick Lawrence leaving court, c.1908-1912.

Emmeline Pankhurst and Emmeline Pethick Lawrence leaving court, c.1908...

7JCC/O/02/053.Photograph, printed, paper, monochrome, Emmeline Pankhurst and Emmeline Pethick Lawrence being greeted by crowds outside Bow Street court; manuscript inscription on reverse 'Released suffragettes ... More