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Dutch School

The Dutch School painters can be dated as Early Netherlandish (1400–1500), Dutch Renaissance (1500–1584), and, later, Dutch Golden Age painting in the United Provinces.

The detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting, led by Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the 1420s and 1430s, is today generally considered to be the beginning of the early Northern Renaissance in painting. This style was greatly respected in Italy, but there was little reciprocal influence on the North until nearly the end of the 15th century. Despite frequent cultural and artistic exchange, the Antwerp Mannerists (1500–1530) were unrelated to Italian Mannerism. Among notable northern painters were highly individualistic artists such as Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder who developed styles that were imitated by many subsequent generations. In the 16th century northern painters increasingly traveled to Italy, so the art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance Mannerism had a great impact on their work.

Hieronymus Bosch and Geertgen tot Sint Jans are well-known examples of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Dutch painters.

In the northern Netherlands, the Reformation brought religious painting almost completely to an end. Portrait painting was slow to spread from the elite to new riches. By the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem in a brief but intense phase of Northern Mannerism that also spread to Flanders. Between 1605 and 1635 over 100,000 paintings were produced in Haarlem. Rembrandt van Rijn, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Jan Steen are just a few names form the seventeenth century.
Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)
1426
1426
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1907
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1907
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Allegory of the Catholic Faith

Allegory of the Catholic Faith

In this atypical painting the artist employed a more abstractive style to suit the intellectual subject. The emotive figure of Faith with "the world at her feet" (according to Ripa’s compendium of allegories) c... more

Ingena Rotterdam (died 1704), Betrothed of Admiral Jacob Binkes

Ingena Rotterdam (died 1704), Betrothed of Admiral Jacob Binkes

Nicolaes Maes (Dutch, Dordrecht 1634–1693 Amsterdam)

Portrait of a Woman

Portrait of a Woman

The picture dates from about 1650 and originally had a neutral background, as in the Marquand Portrait of a Man (91.26.9). In the 1660s or later the work was modernized by repainting the background; the monumen... more

A Vase of Flowers

A Vase of Flowers

Several female artists of the Netherlands specialized in flower pictures, the best known being Rachel Ruysch (1664–1750). Despite his secretive nature, Jan van Huysum accepted Haverman as his pupil in Amsterdam... more

Amorini at play (one of a pair)

Amorini at play (one of a pair)

Manner of Piat Joseph Sauvage (Flemish, Tournai 1744–1818 Tournai)

Amorini at play (one of a pair)

Amorini at play (one of a pair)

Manner of Piat Joseph Sauvage (Flemish, Tournai 1744–1818 Tournai)

Flowers by a Stone Vase

Flowers by a Stone Vase

Peter Faes (Flemish, 1750–1814)

View on the Quirinal Hill, Rome

View on the Quirinal Hill, Rome

For this rooftop view, Denis set up his easel on the upper story of a palazzo on Rome’s Quirinal Hill. His intention was not merely to depict the urban topography. Facing north by northwest, the view beckoned t... more

After the Hunt

After the Hunt

In style, scale, and composition, this work strongly resembles Courbet’s first hunting scene, The Quarry, a great success at the Salon of 1857 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). The present canvas is distinguished ... more

Fishing

Fishing

Patterned after elements in landscapes by Peter Paul Rubens, the present painting gives currency to Delacroix's recommendation to Manet: "Look at Rubens, draw inspiration from Rubens, copy Rubens. Rubens was Go... more

Houses on the Achterzaan

Houses on the Achterzaan

On the advice of the French painter Charles-François Daubigny, Claude Monet traveled to the Netherlands in 1871, where he painted this landscape of limpid waters and azure skies along the Achterzaan River in Za... more

Seventeenth Century Lady

Seventeenth Century Lady

A consummate eclectic, Chase borrowed freely from old masters such as Frans Hals, Rembrandt van Rijn, and Diego Velázquez, and from contemporaries such as Édouard Manet, James McNeill Whistler, and John Singer ... more

Dutch Girl in White

Dutch Girl in White

Henri championed truth and vitality in life and art. He echoed in his paintings the dark palette and gestural brushwork of the old masters Diego Velázquez and Frans Hals and the more recent Realists Édouard Man... more

Portrait of a Man with a Pointed Collar

Portrait of a Man with a Pointed Collar

Attributed to Corneille de Lyon (Netherlandish, The Hague, active by 1533–died 1575 Lyons)

Portrait of a Surgeon

Portrait of a Surgeon

A surgeon is represented here with the attributes of his trade: a skull and a metal instrument that resembles the tool used to cauterize skulls. From his belt hang several keys and a saw. The man’s features—a f... more

Saint Teresa of Ávila Interceding for Souls in Purgatory

Saint Teresa of Ávila Interceding for Souls in Purgatory

The present painting is a reduced workshop version of a large altarpiece painted by Rubens about 1630 to 1633 for the Church of the Discalced Carmelites in Antwerp. The inscription on an engraving by Schelte a ... more

Aeneas and the Sibyl in the Underworld

Aeneas and the Sibyl in the Underworld

This infernal image of the 1630s was inspired by the "hell landscapes" of Jan Brueghel the Elder which in turn looked back to Bosch. The subject is from Virgil, Aeneid, Book VI. Jan Brueghel the Younger (Flemis... more

Saint Michael; The Mass of Saint Gregory; Saint Jerome

Saint Michael; The Mass of Saint Gregory; Saint Jerome

Based on their close stylistic relationship with the central panel of the altarpiece of the Feeding of the Ten Thousand (National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne), these diminutive panels are attributed to the M... more

The Nativity

The Nativity

The central panel of this altarpiece represents the Nativity, flanked on the left by the annunciation of the Tiburtine Sibyl to the emperor Augustus, and on the right by the Annunciation to the Magi with a furt... more

Margherita Gonzaga (1591–1632), Princess of Mantua

Margherita Gonzaga (1591–1632), Princess of Mantua

Pourbus was court painter of Archduke Albert in Brussels when in 1600 he went to Italy at the invitation of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. This portrait must depict the Duke of Mantua's daughter, Margherita,... more

Cosimo II de' Medici (1590–1621), Grand Duke of Tuscany

Cosimo II de' Medici (1590–1621), Grand Duke of Tuscany

Workshop of Justus Sustermans (Flemish, Antwerp 1597–1681 Florence)

The Adoration of the Christ Child

The Adoration of the Christ Child

Workshop of the Master of Frankfurt (Netherlandish, active Antwerp, ca. 1496–1518)

Group Portrait: A Wedding Celebration

Group Portrait: A Wedding Celebration

Gillis van Tilborgh (Flemish, ca. 1625–ca. 1678)

A Cavalry Engagement

A Cavalry Engagement

Adam Frans van der Meulen (Flemish, Brussels 1632–1690 Paris)

Portrait of a Boy with a Falcon

Portrait of a Boy with a Falcon

A native of Lille, Vaillant trained in Antwerp and by the mid-1650s was well established as a portraitist in Amsterdam. The artist is also known as a pioneer of mezzotint engraving. In Dutch and Flemish portrai... more

Pomegranates and Other Fruit in a Landscape

Pomegranates and Other Fruit in a Landscape

Our knowledge of Italian still life painting is still in its infancy. This striking still life has been ascribed, surprisingly to Velázquez, Giuseppe Ruoppoli (a leading exponent of Neopolitan still life painti... more

Lieven Willemsz van Coppenol (born about 1599, died 1671 or later)

Lieven Willemsz van Coppenol (born about 1599, died 1671 or later)

Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn) (Dutch, Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam)

Christ with a Staff

Christ with a Staff

This impressive picture was clearly inspired by Rembrandt's style of the 1660s and was conceivably painted in his workshop. The broad, uniform application of paint and rather decorative use of strokes and scrat... more

Study Head of an Old Man

Study Head of an Old Man

Style of Rembrandt (Dutch, mid- to late 1630s)

Christ and the Woman of Samaria

Christ and the Woman of Samaria

The authorship of this painting has been much debated, but most scholars consider it to be by a Rembrandt pupil of the mid-1650s, with improvements made by the master himself. The 1656 inventory of Rembrandt's ... more

Man with a Magnifying Glass

Man with a Magnifying Glass

The costume and pose of the man in this magnificent late work by Rembrandt were inspired by Raphael’s celebrated portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (Musée du Louvre, Paris), which Rembrandt studied when it appe... more

Portrait of a Woman

Portrait of a Woman

Although the present painting entered the Museum as a work of Van Dyck, the reserved expression of the sitter and the meticulous handling of the details of the costume are characteristic of de Vos's work. This ... more

A Sermon on Charity (possibly the Conversion of Saint Anthony)

A Sermon on Charity (possibly the Conversion of Saint Anthony)

This panel may represent Saint Anthony listening to a reading from the Gospels and distributing his wealth to the poor, or it may be intended as a more general sermon on the virtues of charity. In either case, ... more

Portrait of a Monk in Prayer

Portrait of a Monk in Prayer

This unidentified sitter wears the black habit of a Benedictine monk, and probably formed the left wing of a diptych or triptych. The portrait combines a mix of artistic influences and can be compared to both F... more

Portrait of a Noblewoman, Probably Isabella of Portugal (1397–1472)
Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

In this closely observed portrayal of an old man, the artist pays special attention to the effects of light upon the subject’s wrinkled face. This objective realism relates closely to the work of Hugo van der G... more

A Cat Stealing Fish

A Cat Stealing Fish

This animated scene shows a cat caught in the act of devouring an octopus. The painting, dating from the high point of Recco’s career, shows the painter’s exceptional ability to depict a dazzling range of surfa... more

Skating at Sloten, near Amsterdam

Skating at Sloten, near Amsterdam

Johannes Abrahamsz Beerstraten (Dutch, Amsterdam 1622–1666 Amsterdam)

Christ Bearing the Cross

Christ Bearing the Cross

Set against the backdrop of a contemporary townscape, this theatrical portrayal of Christ’s Way to Calvary recalls an annual civic celebration in Bruges, the Procession of the Holy Blood, which included a reena... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

Quentin Metsys (Netherlandish, Leuven 1466–1530 Kiel)

Adoration of the Magi

Adoration of the Magi

This small panel is framed as the center of a triptych with a prayer to the Virgin inscribed on the interior of its wings. The figures and architectural setting recall the paintings of the Antwerp Mannerists, w... more

The Nativity

The Nativity

South Netherlandish Painter (ca. 1460)

Judith with the Head of Holofernes

Judith with the Head of Holofernes

According to the apocryphal book of the Bible that bears her name, the Jewish heroine Judith saved the city of Bethulia by first beguiling and then beheading the Assyrian general Holofernes. A popular subject o... more

The Holy Family with Saint Paul and a Donor

The Holy Family with Saint Paul and a Donor

Style of Rogier van der Weyden (Netherlandish, mid-15th century)

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

In his Schilder-Boeck (Book on Picturing) of 1604 Karel van Mander wrote about Jan Gossart: " . . . when in the service of the marquis de Veere, Mabuse [Gossart] painted an image of Mary in which the face was p... more

Christ's Descent into Hell

Christ's Descent into Hell

Bosch’s fiery hell scenes remained enormously popular throughout Europe in the sixteenth century. A vast, desolate landscape with a burning city at the right and the river Styx at the left is the setting for th... more

Virgin and Child in an Apse

Virgin and Child in an Apse

Next to Jan van Eyck, Robert Campin was one of the founders of early Netherlandish painting whose celebrated Merode Triptych is displayed at the Cloisters. Based on a lost original of about 1420, this picture i... more

Man in a Beret

Man in a Beret

Style of Rembrandt (Dutch, fourth quarter 17th century)

Woman with a Pink

Woman with a Pink

Wearing a romantically outdated costume and exotic jewelry, the woman holds a pink, or carnation, symbol of love and marriage. If the sitter in the pendant portrait, Man with a Magnifying Glass (14.40.621) is P... more

Portrait of Rembrandt as St. Paul

Portrait of Rembrandt as St. Paul

After Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn) (Dutch, Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam)

Rembrandt's Son Titus (1641–1668)

Rembrandt's Son Titus (1641–1668)

The sentimental subject of Rembrandt's son Titus, who died one year before his father, was a favorite of Rembrandt forgers, who occassionally failed to coordinate the date on their canvas with the style of exec... more

Man with a Steel Gorget

Man with a Steel Gorget

Rembrandt's authorship was doubted as early as the 1920s. In subject and style the painting is typical of the master's immediate circle in the 1640s; attributions to Govert Flinck and to Gerbrand van den Eeckho... more

Man with a Beard

Man with a Beard

Though generally accepted by Rembrandt scholars until about 1940, this canvas was considered an eighteenth-century imitation by F. Schmidt-Degener in 1935. Supporting this view is the sketchy execution, which i... more

The Judgment of Solomon

The Judgment of Solomon

In a dream God granted King Solomon "a wise and an understanding heart," which the turbaned potentate made use of the following day. Two women each claimed an infant as their own, so Solomon ordered it cut in t... more

The Holy Family with Saint Elizabeth, Saint John, and a Dove

The Holy Family with Saint Elizabeth, Saint John, and a Dove

This panel was probably painted shortly after Rubens returned to Antwerp from Rome, where he had become one of the leading masters of the Early Baroque movement. The motif of a roughly handled dove (symbol of t... more

The Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi was a favorite theme in Antwerp Mannerist painting, which emerged in the first quarter of the sixteenth century and is characterized by its extravagant and theatrical style. Showing a ... more

Joseph Interpreting the Dreams of His Fellow Prisoners

Joseph Interpreting the Dreams of His Fellow Prisoners

Master of the Story of Joseph (Netherlandish, ca. 1500)

Changing Pasture

Changing Pasture

In the second half of the nineteenth century, The Hague became the center of a major school of landscape painting. Its principal members were the Maris brothers, Josef Israels, H. W. Mesdag, and Mauve, who sett... more

Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine of Alexandria and Barbara

Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine of Alexandria and Barbara

The picture’s harmonious composition was adapted from a large, celebrated altarpiece Hans Memling completed in 1479 for the Sint-Janshospitaal in Bruges. This smaller, more modest version was commissioned by an... more

Portrait of a Man with a Gold Chain

Portrait of a Man with a Gold Chain

Attributed to Corneille de Lyon (Netherlandish, The Hague, active by 1533–died 1575 Lyons)

The Life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve

The Life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve

This fully intact altarpiece was perhaps commissioned by the Guild of the Load Bearers in Bruges for their chapel in the "Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk" (Church of Our Lady). When closed, four saints––Josse, Nicholas, ... more

The Good Samaritan

The Good Samaritan

This small copy after a canvas by Francesco Bassano of about 1575 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) was made as the model for an engraved plate in Teniers's Theatrum Pictorum (Antwerp, 1658), his catalogue of ... more

Soldiers Bivouacking

Soldiers Bivouacking

Pieter Snayers (Flemish, 1592–?1667)

The Marriage Feast at Cana

The Marriage Feast at Cana

This was one of forty-seven panels representing the lives of Christ and the Virgin that were made for Isabella of Castile. The picture’s subject is the marriage feast at Cana, when Christ performed his first mi... more

Saint Michael the Archangel

Saint Michael the Archangel

Ries was the son of a Flemish painter who had settled in Seville. In the mid-1630s he worked for Zurbarán, some of whose paintings are displayed in this gallery and to whom this picture was long attributed. Now... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

In this canvas of the early 1650s, the figure's pose follows a pattern Hals employed twenty years earlier, but here the arrangement is more frontal and contained. The resulting impression of reserve or authorit... more

Adam and Eve in Paradise

Adam and Eve in Paradise

David Teniers the Younger (Flemish, Antwerp 1610–1690 Brussels)

Old Age in Search of Youth

Old Age in Search of Youth

David Teniers the Younger (Flemish, Antwerp 1610–1690 Brussels)

Portrait of a Man, Possibly Jean de Langeac (died 1541), Bishop of Limoges

Portrait of a Man, Possibly Jean de Langeac (died 1541), Bishop of Lim...

The face, hands, and still life elements are the least affected parts of this much damaged painting. Previously attributed to the British school, the picture is more likely the work of a Flemish painter active ... more

A Young Woman in a Landscape

A Young Woman in a Landscape

Full-length portraits of less than royal sitters were exceptional in the Netherlands until Rubens and Van Dyck, and in Amsterdam Thomas de Keyser and Rembrandt, made them fashionable. This unassuming portrait o... more

Gathering Wood

Gathering Wood

Anton Mauve (Dutch, Zaandam 1838–1888 Arnhem)

The Fifteen Mysteries and the Virgin of the Rosary

The Fifteen Mysteries and the Virgin of the Rosary

This miniature altarpiece relates to the cult of the Virgin of the Rosary. Depicted in the upper registers are fifteen mysteries associated with the Virgin's life: five joyful, five sorrowful, and five glorious... more

A Basket of Flowers

A Basket of Flowers

The artist took over his famous father's studio in 1625 when Jan the Elder died unexpectedly. The composition here is borrowed from somewhat more elaborate arrangements by Jan I; the execution pays tribute to h... more

The Forge

The Forge

Léonard Defrance (Flemish, 1735–1805)

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

Netherlandish Painter (first half 16th century)

The Holy Family with Saint Anne and the Young Baptist and His Parents

The Holy Family with Saint Anne and the Young Baptist and His Parents

Jordaens frequently revised his own paintings after many years, as he did here. The Christ Child, Mary and Joseph, the Virgin’s mother Saint Anne, and probably a version of the infant Saint John the Baptist wer... more

Saint Paul with Paolo Pagagnotti; Christ Appearing to His Mother

Saint Paul with Paolo Pagagnotti; Christ Appearing to His Mother

A contemporary of Memling, the Master of the Legend of Saint Ursula seems to have headed an active workshop in Bruges. These paintings originally flanked a Virgin and Child in a folding triptych commissioned by... more

Old Woman Praying

Old Woman Praying

The earliest known reference to Stom (wrongly called Stomer in modern literature) dates from 1630, when he was living in the same house in Rome that the Utrecht painter Paulus Bor occupied about five years earl... more

The Mourning Virgin; The Man of Sorrows

The Mourning Virgin; The Man of Sorrows

One of numerous copies of a lost original by Bouts, this diptych was produced perhaps fifty years after the master's death. The best version of the composition, now in the Art Institute, Chicago, can be dated o... more

Jan (1438–1516), First Count of Egmond; Countess of Egmond (Magdalena van Werdenburg, 1464–1538)

Jan (1438–1516), First Count of Egmond; Countess of Egmond (Magdalena ...

In 1484, the future count Jan van Egmond married Magdalena van Werdenburg, when he was forty-six and she was twenty years old. Evidently these portraits depict an older couple; rather than celebrating the marri... more

An Allegory, Probably of the Peace of Utrecht of 1713

An Allegory, Probably of the Peace of Utrecht of 1713

Antoine Rivalz (French, 1667–1735)

The Rope Dance

The Rope Dance

Léonard Defrance (Flemish, 1735–1805)

Christ Crowned with Thorns

Christ Crowned with Thorns

An artist of astonishing originality, Antonello combined a Netherlandish mastery of description with an Italian emphasis on formal presentation and expression. This painting may date as early as 1470. To increa... more

Landscape at Sunset

Landscape at Sunset

A keen eye for effects of light distinguishes the landscape paintings of Aert van der Neer. Here, the artist turned his attention to the sun setting over a river, with brilliantly illuminated pink and yellow cl... more

Man in Armor (Mars?)

Man in Armor (Mars?)

This painting, acquired as by Aert de Gelder, has for decades been assigned either to Rembrandt's cousin Karel van der Pluym (1625–1672), or to Heyman Dullaert (1636–1684), a Rotterdam poet and painter who was ... more

Hendrickje Stoffels (1626–1663)

Hendrickje Stoffels (1626–1663)

The sitter is probably Hendrickje Stoffels, who was the painter's companion from about 1650 until her early death in 1663. Rembrandt's responsibility for this portrait has never been doubted, although the signa... more

Portrait of a Woman

Portrait of a Woman

Style of Rembrandt (Dutch, mid- to late 1640s)

Pilate Washing His Hands

Pilate Washing His Hands

Critical opinions of this picture have varied considerably since about 1905, when Wilhelm von Bode described it as "a somewhat abnormal work" by Rembrandt. However, most scholars since the 1940s have dated the ... more

Frans Hals (1582/83–1666)

Frans Hals (1582/83–1666)

Copy after Frans Hals (Dutch, 17th century)

Malle Babbe

Malle Babbe

In 1872 Henry James described the painting as "dashed upon the canvas by a brush superbly confident." Hals's authorship has been discounted since the 1880s but the picture must be by a close follower, and is ba... more

Four Scenes from the Passion

Four Scenes from the Passion

This panel was probably the centerpiece of a small triptych intended to assist its owner in the empathetic experience of Christ's Passion. Depicted in four delicately painted miniature scenes are the Agony in t... more

Portrait of a Young Woman

Portrait of a Young Woman

Netherlandish Painter (ca. 1535)

The Annunciation

The Annunciation

South Netherlandish Painter (ca. 1460)

The Calling of Matthew

The Calling of Matthew

Van Hemessen executed several versions of this painting, which illustrates the moment Matthew turned from tax collecting to following Christ as an apostle. Van Hemessen was among the earliest Netherlandish arti... more

Beggars at a Doorway

Beggars at a Doorway

Master of the Béguins, French or Flemish, active 1650–60 (possibly Abraham Willemsens, Flemish, active by 1627, died 1672)

Shepherds and Sheep

Shepherds and Sheep

This picture belongs to the same group of copies by Teniers after paintings in the collection of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm as does The Good Samaritan, also exhibited here. The present whereabouts of the past... more

Frans Francken I (1542–1616)

Frans Francken I (1542–1616)

Workshop of Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, Siegen 1577–1640 Antwerp)

The Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi

Copy after Hugo van der Goes (Netherlandish, late 15th century)

Portrait of a Bearded Man in Black

Portrait of a Bearded Man in Black

In the eighteenth century this exceptionally well-preserved panel probably belonged to Horace Walpole, who believed it to be by Holbein. Attributed to Corneille de Lyon (Netherlandish, The Hague, active by 1533... more

The Adoration of the Christ Child

The Adoration of the Christ Child

The fourteenth-century mystic Saint Bridget of Sweden recounted Christ's birth after experiencing a vision. The "great and ineffable light" she described as emanating from the Child is the most compelling featu... more