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Dutch School

The Dutch School painters can be dated as Early Netherlandish (1400–1500), Dutch Renaissance (1500–1584), and, later, Dutch Golden Age painting in the United Provinces.

The detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting, led by Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the 1420s and 1430s, is today generally considered to be the beginning of the early Northern Renaissance in painting. This style was greatly respected in Italy, but there was little reciprocal influence on the North until nearly the end of the 15th century. Despite frequent cultural and artistic exchange, the Antwerp Mannerists (1500–1530) were unrelated to Italian Mannerism. Among notable northern painters were highly individualistic artists such as Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder who developed styles that were imitated by many subsequent generations. In the 16th century northern painters increasingly traveled to Italy, so the art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance Mannerism had a great impact on their work.

Hieronymus Bosch and Geertgen tot Sint Jans are well-known examples of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Dutch painters.

In the northern Netherlands, the Reformation brought religious painting almost completely to an end. Portrait painting was slow to spread from the elite to new riches. By the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem in a brief but intense phase of Northern Mannerism that also spread to Flanders. Between 1605 and 1635 over 100,000 paintings were produced in Haarlem. Rembrandt van Rijn, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Jan Steen are just a few names form the seventeenth century.
Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)
1426
1426
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1907
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1907
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The Adoration of the Shepherds

The Adoration of the Shepherds

A master in the Antwerp painter’s guild since 1549, Coffermans was not interested in the Italianate mannerist style of his own time, but took his inspiration primarily from the works of artists active two or th... more

The Harvesters

The Harvesters

This panel belongs to a series, commissioned by the Antwerp merchant Niclaes Jongelinck for his suburban home. The cycle originally included six paintings showing the times of the year. Apart from The Harvester... more

Fish Market

Fish Market

Signed and dated 1568, this masterfully composed view of a daily fish market represents the new genre of still-life painting, initiated by Joachim Beuckelaer and his teacher, Pieter Aertsen, who lived and worke... more

The Annunciation

The Annunciation

Candid (or Candido) was born in Bruges and trained in Florence, where he began his career as painter and designer of tapestries. In this grand altarpiece, the Angel Gabriel along with God the Father and the Hol... more

The Martyrdom of Saint Andrew

The Martyrdom of Saint Andrew

This oil sketch on paper is the earliest surviving preparatory work for Otto van Veen's painting for the high altar of Antwerp's church of Saint Andrew, still in situ. Depicted is the crucifixion of the apostle... more

Moses Striking the Rock

Moses Striking the Rock

Bloemaert worked in Utrecht and taught many of the leading artists of that city during the course of his long career. This painting is characteristic of the mannerist style which he adopted in the last decade o... more

Portrait of a Man, Possibly an Architect or Geographer

Portrait of a Man, Possibly an Architect or Geographer

This sensitive portrait on copper is one of Rubens’s earliest known works. The square and dividers may refer to architecture or geography, while the watch is a reminder of mortality. Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish,... more

A Mountainous Landscape with a Waterfall

A Mountainous Landscape with a Waterfall

Unlike Jan Brueghel the Elder, who was a leading figure in the development of realistic landscape painting, Kerstiaen de Keuninck continued the Flemish tradition of imaginary mountain scenery that descended fro... more

Vanitas Still Life

Vanitas Still Life

De Gheyn was a wealthy amateur who is best known as a brilliant draftsman, but he also painted and engraved. This panel is generally considered to be the earliest known independent still life painting of a vani... more

Henry Frederick (1594–1612), Prince of Wales, with Sir John Harington (1592–1614), in the Hunting Field

Henry Frederick (1594–1612), Prince of Wales, with Sir John Harington ...

This royal hunting portrait was modeled after an earlier type established by Netherlandish and German artists. The young Prince Henry sheathes his sword while his companion, Sir John Harington, holds the deer's... more

The Golden Age

The Golden Age

The Utrecht painter Joachim Wtewael was among the most sophisticated of Netherlandish Mannerists, as is evident from this exquisite cabinet picture on copper, dated 1605. The subject is taken from the opening p... more

A Woodland Road with Travelers

A Woodland Road with Travelers

Jan, who was born shortly before the death of his famous father, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, advanced the genre of northern landscape painting beyond his father’s legacy. In this refined, well-preserved panel, th... more

Landscape with Travelers on a Woodland Path

Landscape with Travelers on a Woodland Path

Jan Brueghel the Elder (Netherlandish, Brussels 1568–1625 Antwerp)

Study of Two Heads

Study of Two Heads

Rubens painted studies of heads after live models and artistic sources, creating a cast of characters that served in turn as models for figures in religious and mythological works. The main figure here became a... more

The Dead Christ in the Tomb with Two Angels

The Dead Christ in the Tomb with Two Angels

Janssen joined the painters' guild in Antwerp in 1601, just after returning from a few years of study in Rome. From about 1606 until 1612 he worked in a strongly Caravaggesque manner; this canvas is a typical e... more

The Feast of Acheloüs

The Feast of Acheloüs

Rubens and his friend Jan Brueghel collaborated on a number of mythological and religious pictures about 1610–20. In this panel Rubens designed and painted the figure groups and Brueghel painted everything else... more

A Winter Landscape with Ice Skaters and an Imaginary Castle

A Winter Landscape with Ice Skaters and an Imaginary Castle

The artist’s family fled Flanders to the neighboring Dutch province of Zeeland. In Middelburg he specialized in precious flower pictures and landscapes like this one, where the decorative distribution of trees,... more

The Holy Family with Shepherds

The Holy Family with Shepherds

The date of 1616 on the tall shepherd’s hat is the earliest known on any work by Jordaens. He never went to Italy but intensified the Caravaggesque qualities found in works by Rubens and other Antwerp artists s... more

Wolf and Fox Hunt

Wolf and Fox Hunt

With characteristic business acumen, Rubens created a market for a new art form: very large hunting scenes painted on canvas, of which this one is the first. The few earlier examples were either models for or c... more

Atalanta and Meleager

Atalanta and Meleager

This magnificent picture illustrates a story from the Metamorphoses of Ovid (1st century A.D.). Meleager has killed the wild boar that ravaged the countryside and presented the head to the virgin Atalanta, with... more

Merrymakers at Shrovetide

Merrymakers at Shrovetide

The loud style of this early work by Hals suits its subject, which is Vastenavond (Shrovetide or Mardi Gras), a pre-Lenten carnival featuring bad food and worse behavior. Two characters from the comic stage, Pe... more

Study Head of an Old Man with a White Beard

Study Head of an Old Man with a White Beard

Rubens’s practice of using real people as models for figures in his religious and mythological scenes was followed closely in Antwerp by his younger colleagues Jacob Jordaens and Anthony van Dyck. The present p... more

Study Head of a Young Woman

Study Head of a Young Woman

Study heads of this type were painted by Van Dyck using live models, whose features were then repeated in finished pictures, usually of religious subjects. Indeed, the present figure served as the prototype for... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

This impressive portrait, painted about 1618 when the artist was eighteen or nineteen years old, is very close in style to contemporary and slightly earlier portraits by Rubens, for whom Van Dyck was working at... more

Self-Portrait

Self-Portrait

The young Van Dyck presents himself as a courtly gentleman, with no reference to his profession other than the painting itself. The portrait probably dates from the artist’s stay in London during the winter of ... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

At least eight versions of this tender image came out of Van Dyck’s workshop, and this one is at once the finest and least finished example. The deftly fluid brushstrokes loosely follow an incised underdrawing,... more

Lucas van Uffel (died 1637)

Lucas van Uffel (died 1637)

Van Uffel was a wealthy Flemish merchant who lived in Venice, where Van Dyck probably painted this portrait early in his Italian period (1621–27). In another portrait (Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Brauschweig), ... more

Portrait of a Woman, Called the Marchesa Durazzo

Portrait of a Woman, Called the Marchesa Durazzo

During the six years he spent in Italy (1621–27), Van Dyck was frequently in Genoa, where he painted some of his most magnificent portraits. This sitter is traditionally identified as a member of the patrician ... more

The Smoker

The Smoker

The loose brushwork on this octagonal panel—its original shape—captures the bustle of a tavern interior as caught in a corner of the viewer's eye. Although the painting's attribution to Hals has been questioned... more

Young Man and Woman in an Inn ("Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart")

Young Man and Woman in an Inn ("Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart")

The traditional title dates from the eighteenth century and is based upon a mistaken identification with Pieter Ramp, who appears in a group portrait of about 1627 by Hals. The figures here are a young man and ... more

Saint Rosalie Interceding for the Plague-stricken of Palermo

Saint Rosalie Interceding for the Plague-stricken of Palermo

Van Dyck was in Palermo, Sicily, when a plague broke out and the city was quarantined. On July 15, 1624, the remains of Saint Rosalie—the city’s patroness, who died about 1160—were opportunely discovered on Mou... more

Portrait of a Woman, Probably Susanna Lunden (Susanna Fourment, 1599–1628)

Portrait of a Woman, Probably Susanna Lunden (Susanna Fourment, 1599–1...

This intimate portrait probably represents a sister of Helena Fourment, Rubens’s second wife and the youngest of the Antwerp silk merchant Daniel Fourment’s seven daughters. Most scholars favor an identificatio... more

Boy with a Lute

Boy with a Lute

Inspired by Dutch Caravaggesque painters such as Gerrit van Honthorst and Hendrick ter Brugghen, Hals painted pictures of carefree musicians during the mid- to late 1620s. Here a young man pours a last drop of ... more

Portrait of a Bearded Man with a Ruff

Portrait of a Bearded Man with a Ruff

As the original inscription indicates, the sitter was thirty-six when portrayed by Hals. The portrait's immediacy is enhanced by vivid brushwork, strong modeling, and a glance and heartfelt gesture which respon... more

Still Life

Still Life

Flegel, from Moravia, worked in Vienna and Frankfurt am Main. His style eschews Netherlandish refinement in favor of naturalistic precision, a tradition extending from Albrecht Dürer to nature studies by Dutch ... more

Nymph and Shepherd

Nymph and Shepherd

Liss, from northwestern Germany, reportedly studied in Haarlem and about 1620 travelled through Antwerp and Paris to Italy. After a period in Venice he worked in Rome (ca. 1622-25), where he painted works eclec... more

Petrus Scriverius (1576–1660)

Petrus Scriverius (1576–1660)

Scriverius was a distinguished historian, poet, and scholar of classical literature. His wife, Anna van der Aar, was the daughter of a Leiden city councilman. In this pair of portraits Hals employs the scale, o... more

Anna van der Aar (born 1576/77, died after 1626)

Anna van der Aar (born 1576/77, died after 1626)

Scriverius was a distinguished historian, poet, and scholar of classical literature. His wife, Anna van der Aar, was the daughter of a Leiden city councilman. In this pair of portraits Hals employs the scale, o... more

Sandy Road with a Farmhouse

Sandy Road with a Farmhouse

Painted in Leiden in 1627, this small panel is one of the earliest examples of a diagonal design that the artist would use until about 1640. Although Van Goyen worked in Haarlem only when he studied with Esaias... more

Philip IV (1605–1665) in Parade Armor

Philip IV (1605–1665) in Parade Armor

Gaspar de Crayer painted several portraits of Philip IV, probably commissioned by the Marqués de Leganés, who served as Philip’s emissary to the Spanish court in Brussels in 1627–28. Here the young king of Spai... more

A Banquet

A Banquet

Frans Hals's younger brother Dirck probably studied with him and perhaps with the Rotterdam genre painter Willem Buytewech (1591/92–1624), who worked in Haarlem about 1612–17. Like Buytewech, Dirck was a specia... more

Landscape with a Cottage

Landscape with a Cottage

Born in London, Molijn joined the painter's guild at Haarlem in 1616. Together with his slightly younger contemporaries, Jan van Goyen and Salomon van Ruysdael, he established the new tonal landscape style that... more

The Triumph of Henry IV

The Triumph of Henry IV

This energetic sketch shows Henry IV (1553–1610), King of France, entering Paris "in the manner of the triumphs of the Romans," as described in Rubens’s contract of 1622. Rubens was to paint forty-eight large c... more

Virgin and Child with Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Virgin and Child with Saint Catherine of Alexandria

The infant Jesus responds with playful enthusiasm to an adoring Saint Catherine, a former princess identified by pearls and a martyr’s palm. She was esteemed as an intercessor for young women because of her mys... more

The Glorification of the Eucharist

The Glorification of the Eucharist

This oil sketch is Rubens’s design for an altarpiece ensemble in the church of the Calced Carmelites in Antwerp, which was executed in 1637–38 by the painter Gerard Seghers and the sculptor Hans van Mildert. Th... more

Sarra de Peyster

Sarra de Peyster

Sarra de Peyster (1629–1646) and her younger brother Jacques (b. 1630) were born in the Netherlands to Jacques de Peyster and his wife, Catherine. The de Peyster's descendants brought this lavish portrait to Am... more

Robert Rich (1587–1658), Second Earl of Warwick

Robert Rich (1587–1658), Second Earl of Warwick

A Puritan sailor of fortune, the first earl of Warwick set up companies in Virginia and the Caribbean, helped colonize Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and seized Spanish ships on behalf of the Duk... more

Portrait of a Woman with a Lace Collar

Portrait of a Woman with a Lace Collar

Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt (Netherlandish, Delft 1567–1641 Delft)

The Coronation of the Virgin

The Coronation of the Virgin

Rubens made this oil sketch in preparation for a large canvas formerly in Berlin (destroyed in 1945). The final composition was proportionately taller, with God the Father moved closer to the Virgin, who seems ... more

James Stuart (1612–1655), Duke of Richmond and Lennox

James Stuart (1612–1655), Duke of Richmond and Lennox

In 1641 the fourth Duke of Lennox was created first Duke of Richmond by his cousin, Charles I, King of England. Four years earlier he had married Mary Villiers, daughter of the king’s favorite, the Duke of Buck... more

Bellona

Bellona

Rembrandt’s sober and powerful depiction of Bellona, the Roman goddess of war, was perhaps intended to suggest the new Dutch Republic’s readiness to repel foreign forces. Images of Mars and his sister Bellona o... more

Portrait of a Young Woman with a Fan

Portrait of a Young Woman with a Fan

This animated portrait has a pendant showing the sitter’s husband rising from a chair (Taft Museum, Cincinnati). When seen together, husband and wife seem to respond to each other, making these among Rembrandt'... more

Portrait of a Woman

Portrait of a Woman

The sitter’s identity is unknown, as in many Rembrandt portraits of the 1630s. During that decade in Amsterdam the painter was pressed with many portrait commissions, which he handled with the occasional use of... more

The Preaching of John the Baptist

The Preaching of John the Baptist

This well-preserved picture by Breenbergh, a pioneer of Italianate landscape painting, dates from a few years after his return from Rome to Amsterdam. The subject of Saint John preaching in the wilderness was o... more

Rubens, His Wife Helena Fourment (1614–1673), and Their Son Frans (1633–1678)

Rubens, His Wife Helena Fourment (1614–1673), and Their Son Frans (163...

This magnificent portrait shows the artist with his second wife and one of their five children strolling in a "Garden of Love." The child wears male attire and must be Frans (1633–1678). He appears without his ... more

Still Life with Oysters, a Silver Tazza, and Glassware

Still Life with Oysters, a Silver Tazza, and Glassware

With his Haarlem colleague Pieter Claesz, Heda was one of the leading painters of the so-called monochrome banquet piece in the Netherlands. In this panel of 1635 he shows off his virtuoso ability to describe r... more

A Forest at Dawn with a Deer Hunt

A Forest at Dawn with a Deer Hunt

Rubens painted about three dozen landscapes during his busy career, mostly for his own pleasure. The late ones, like this superb example, transform earlier Flemish models through fresh studies of nature and col... more

A Party of Merrymakers

A Party of Merrymakers

Viewers of the time would have taken in at a glance not only the off-key carousing but also signs—the fancy shoes, frizzy hair, open collar, and so on—that make the symbolic satyr redundant. Quast worked in the... more

Portrait of a Man, Possibly Nicolaes Pietersz Duyst van Voorhout (born about 1600, died 1650)

Portrait of a Man, Possibly Nicolaes Pietersz Duyst van Voorhout (born...

This brilliantly painted portrait can be dated on the basis of the stylish costume. Duyst van Voorhout was a Haarlem brewer, one of the most lucrative professions of the period. He had forty-seven pictures at t... more

The Smokers

The Smokers

The Fleming Brouwer worked in Haarlem and Amsterdam before joining the Antwerp painters' guild in 1621–32. HIs sheer talent and flair for human comedy earned the short-lived artist the esteem of Rubens and Remb... more

Market by the Seashore

Market by the Seashore

On a beach like that at Zantvoort, near Haarlem, small fishing boats are hauled up onto the sand and fishermen unload their catch. Potential customers and idle onlookers gather around. The date on this panel, l... more

Margaretha van Clootwijk (born about 1580/81, died 1662), Wife of Jacob van Dalen

Margaretha van Clootwijk (born about 1580/81, died 1662), Wife of Jaco...

Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt (Netherlandish, Delft 1567–1641 Delft)

Landscape with a Battle between Two Rams

Landscape with a Battle between Two Rams

This animated scene stands in opposition to the grand, classical tradition represented by Poussin, Claude, and Bourdon. The picture is ascribed to Jan Miel, who moved to Rome in the 1630s. He specialized in sce... more

Herman Doomer (born about 1595, died 1650)

Herman Doomer (born about 1595, died 1650)

This well preserved portrait of exceptional quality depicts the Amsterdam ebony worker Herman Doomer, who made fine cabinets and chests. His widow's will of 1654 leaves this painting and a companion portrait of... more

Still Life: A Banqueting Scene

Still Life: A Banqueting Scene

The attribution of this large and luxurious still life has gone back and forth between Jan de Heem and his followers, but the painting was most likely painted by De Heem himself about 1640–41 in Antwerp, where ... more

Jacob van Dalen (1570–1644), Called Vallensis

Jacob van Dalen (1570–1644), Called Vallensis

Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt (Netherlandish, Delft 1567–1641 Delft)

Paulus Verschuur (1606–1667)

Paulus Verschuur (1606–1667)

Paulus Verschuur served seven terms as burgomaster of Rotterdam and was also a director of the East India Company. Despite Hals's reputation for conviviality, his mature portraits are often sober and restrained... more

The Toilet of Bathsheba

The Toilet of Bathsheba

King David, barely discernible atop the palace in the background, sees Bathsheba bathing and sends for her, despite the fact that she is married to his loyal soldier Uriah (Samuel 2:2–5). The king later arrange... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

After Frans Hals, Verspronck was the most accomplished portraitist in Haarlem from the 1630s until his death. He invariably drew a preliminary sketch of the sitter's head and collar on the primed support, and t... more

Guardroom with the Deliverance of Saint Peter

Guardroom with the Deliverance of Saint Peter

Teniers’s talents as a still life painter, observer of folksy figures, and popular moralist are amply evident in this well preserved panel. By including Saint Peter in prison (Acts 12:5–11) as a background scen... more

Young Woman with a Red Necklace

Young Woman with a Red Necklace

Style of Rembrandt (Dutch, ca. 1645)

Ferry near Gorinchem

Ferry near Gorinchem

Ruysdael has a reputation for inventing topography, but this canvas depicts a largely faithful view of Gorinchem (Gorcum) from the south. The artist's viewpoint was on a spit of land called Buiten de Waterpoort... more

The Pelkus Gate near Utrecht

The Pelkus Gate near Utrecht

About a dozen paintings by Van Goyen feature some form of the once familiar Pelkus gate (erected 1371), a freestanding tower on the tow-path of the river Vecht. The setting is always invented and the monument t... more

A View of The Hague from the Northwest

A View of The Hague from the Northwest

Jan van Goyen (Dutch, Leiden 1596–1656 The Hague)

A Country Road

A Country Road

In this mature work Van Ruysdael seems to follow the advice given to painters by Karel van Mander in 1604: "But above all do not forget to put small figures under tall trees. . . Make the countryside, the town,... more

Wide River Landscape

Wide River Landscape

Koninck's panoramic pictures represent the culmination of an approach to landscape that is found in Dutch drawings as early as about 1600, and in the imaginary panoramic landscapes of Rembrandt and Hercules Seg... more

Portrait of a Man Holding Gloves

Portrait of a Man Holding Gloves

In style and execution this portrait of a dignified older gentleman is consistent with Rembrandt's work of about 1645–50. The picture's apparent quality has been diminished by abrasion in the face; the jawline ... more

Marine

Marine

This well-preserved picture is one of a number that Van Ruysdael painted in Haarlem about 1650, following Jan van Goyen's somewhat earlier example. The sailboat flying the Dutch flag is a "schouw," a shallow-dr... more

Fishing Boats on a River

Fishing Boats on a River

In his many river views Van Ruysdael paid close attention to types of boats and the buildings they sail by. Here, however, his main concerns seem optical: silhouettes, reflections, and a panoramic view over wat... more

View of the Town of Alkmaar

View of the Town of Alkmaar

Salomon van Ruysdael (Dutch, Naarden, born ca. 1600–1603, died 1670 Haarlem)

Drawing the Eel

Drawing the Eel

This picture of a village entertainment on a crisp winter day is one of the finest of the 174 paintings acquired in the Museum’s founding 1871 Purchase. The eel or herring dangling from a line strung from taver... more

Flora

Flora

Although pictures of Flora by Titian and other Italian artists ultimately inspired this work, Rembrandt rejects their idealizing approach by treating the goddess of Spring as an ordinary woman in fancy dress, w... more

The Standard Bearer (Floris Soop, 1604–1657)

The Standard Bearer (Floris Soop, 1604–1657)

The flag, the plume in the hat, and the tooled leather baldric (sword-belt) indicate that the figure is an ensign in one of Amsterdam's civic guard companies. He is almost certainly Floris Soop, a wealthy bache... more

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683)

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683)

In 1651 Colbert joined the household of Cardinal Mazarin, principal advisor to Queen Anne of Austria during the minority of Louis XIV (1638–1715), and one of the great collectors of the seventeenth century. Hav... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

This portrait is generally considered to be by Rembrandt, and is somewhat less uniformly thought to date from the 1650s. Both questions are made more difficult by the condition of the picture: the hands, the bo... more

Old Woman Cutting Her Nails

Old Woman Cutting Her Nails

Once well known as a Rembrandt, this large canvas has also been attributed to the master's pupil, Nicolaes Maes (1643–1693), and to Abraham van Dijck (ca. 1635?–1680?). The two artists were closely associated i... more

Petronella Elias (1648–1667) with a Basket of Fruit

Petronella Elias (1648–1667) with a Basket of Fruit

Bol was a pupil of Rembrandt in the late 1630s, and followed his teacher's style until the middle of the century. During the 1650s Bol became established in Amsterdam society, enjoyed considerable success as a ... more

Portrait of a Man ("The Auctioneer")

Portrait of a Man ("The Auctioneer")

This fine portrait of an engaging young scholar was painted by an artist who was closely familiar with Rembrandt's style of about 1655–60. The master's surface effects have been imitated with flair but his emul... more

Everhard Jabach (1618–1695) and His Family

Everhard Jabach (1618–1695) and His Family

This painting combines the domestic intimacy and descriptive richness of Dutch and Flemish art, which Jabach collected and admired, with the measured formal organization and allegorical allusions characteristic... more

Peasants Dancing and Feasting

Peasants Dancing and Feasting

In this canvas of about 1660 Teniers treats a theme that may be traced back at least a century to Pieter Bruegel the Elder. There are several signs of excess behavior but the artist was clearly less concerned w... more

Man Holding a Jug

Man Holding a Jug

A moment’s glance at a tavern habitué allows the painter to display his remarkable gifts for describing character as well as physical substances and light effects. "Low life" studies of this kind can be traced ... more

Curiosity

Curiosity

Eloquent letter writing—in Dutch and French—flourished in the Netherlands during the prosperous decades of the 1650s and 1660s. In this celebrated picture, the young woman to the left, wearing one of the Ter Bo... more

Self-Portrait

Self-Portrait

The dozen or more self-portraits that date from each decade of Rembrandt's career vary considerably in composition, expression and technique. In the late examples, the broad applications of paint convey a candi... more

Clothing the Naked

Clothing the Naked

Although from Brussels, Sweerts probably painted this masterful work in Amsterdam, where he was active about 1656–61. The subject was usually depicted within a series of the Seven Acts of Mercy, but this canvas... more

A Bouquet of Flowers in a Crystal Vase

A Bouquet of Flowers in a Crystal Vase

Van Veerendael was influenced by two of the leading flower painters in Antwerp, Jan Davidsz de Heem and Daniel Seghers. In this early work the evidence of acute observation seems a legacy of De Heem's Dutch ori... more

The Dissolute Household

The Dissolute Household

Steen and members of his family modeled for this scene of domestic chaos, which is still called a "Jan Steen Household" in The Netherlands. The company acts out a variety of familiar sins, such as Sloth, Glutto... more

Portrait of Gerard de Lairesse

Portrait of Gerard de Lairesse

Gerard de Lairesse (1641–1711) was, in his day, a well-known painter, etcher, and art theorist. He suffered from congenital syphilis, which caused him to go blind about 1690; he subsequently focused his energie... more

Self-Portrait

Self-Portrait

Dou was the leading figure among the Leiden fijnschilders (fine painters) who continued the earlier Netherlandish tradition of meticulous description and superb craftsmanship. Here the artist presents himself a... more

The Huis ten Bosch at The Hague and Its Formal Garden (View from the South)

The Huis ten Bosch at The Hague and Its Formal Garden (View from the S...

The Huis ten Bosch (House in the Wood) at The Hague, designed by Pieter Post, was built in the late 1640s for Amalia van Solms, wife of the Dutch stadholder, Prince Frederick Hendrick. In these two views, Jan v... more

The Huis ten Bosch at The Hague and Its Formal Garden (View from the East)

The Huis ten Bosch at The Hague and Its Formal Garden (View from the E...

In the garden, two ivy-covered pavilions echo the shape of the central Hall of Orange and the cupola of the house. Classical sculpture and trellis-work obelisks mark the main walkways between the French-inspire... more