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Dutch School

Netherlands Art at Metropolitan MuseumCreated by: PICRYLDated: 1584
Robert Campin - Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)
The Dutch School painters can be dated as Early Netherlandish (1400–1500), Dutch Renaissance (1500–1584), and, later, Dutch Golden Age painting in the United Provinces.

The detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting, led by Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the 1420s and 1430s, is today generally considered to be the beginning of the early Northern Renaissance in painting. This style was greatly respected in Italy, but there was little reciprocal influence on the North until nearly the end of the 15th century. Despite frequent cultural and artistic exchange, the Antwerp Mannerists (1500–1530) were unrelated to Italian Mannerism. Among notable northern painters were highly individualistic artists such as Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder who developed styles that were imitated by many subsequent generations. In the 16th century northern painters increasingly traveled to Italy, so the art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance Mannerism had a great impact on their work.

Hieronymus Bosch and Geertgen tot Sint Jans are well-known examples of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Dutch painters.

In the northern Netherlands, the Reformation brought religious painting almost completely to an end. Portrait painting was slow to spread from the elite to new riches. By the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem in a brief but intense phase of Northern Mannerism that also spread to Flanders. Between 1605 and 1635 over 100,000 paintings were produced in Haarlem. Rembrandt van Rijn, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Jan Steen are just a few names form the seventeenth century.
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Hugo van der Goes - The Adoration of the Magi

Hugo van der Goes - The Adoration of the Magi

Copy after Hugo van der Goes (Netherlandish, late 15th century)

Portrait of a Noblewoman, Probably Isabella of Portugal (1397–1472)
Robert Campin - Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)
Robert Campin - Man in Prayer
Portrait of a Man in a Turban
Jan van Eyck - The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment
Petrus Christus - Head of Christ
Petrus Christus - Portrait of a Carthusian
Petrus Christus - A Goldsmith in his Shop
Petrus Christus - The Lamentation, 15th century
Saint Donatian; Saint Victor Presenting a Donor

Saint Donatian; Saint Victor Presenting a Donor

Netherlandish (Bruges) Painter (ca. 1490)

Petrus Christus - The Annunciation, 15th century
Dieric Bouts - Virgin and Child
Head of a Donor
Dieric Bouts - A Donor Presented by a Saint
Francesco d'Este (born about 1430, died after 1475)
Hans Memling - The Annunciation, 15th century
The Adoration of the Magi
Portrait of a Young Man
Tommaso di Folco Portinari (1428–1501); Maria Portinari (Maria Maddalena Baroncelli, born 1456)
Hans Memling - Portrait of a Young Man
Hieronymus Bosch - The Adoration of the Magi
Dieric Bouts - Virgin and Child
Portrait of a Woman

Portrait of a Woman

Netherlandish or French

Hugo van der Goes - Portrait of a Man
Hans Memling - Virgin and Child
Hans Memling - Portrait of an Old Man
Hans Memling - Salvator Mundi, 15th century
Virgin and Child
Hugo van der Goes - A Benedictine Monk
Dieric Bouts - Saint Christopher and the Infant Christ
Virgin and Child with Saint Anne Presenting Anna van Nieuwenhove
Hans Memling - The Annunciation, 15th century
Abner's Messenger before David (?); The Queen of Sheba Bringing Gifts to Solomon; The Annunciation
The Crucifixion, tempera, page of illuminated manuscript
Young Man Holding a Book
Hans Memling - Young Woman with a Pink
Holy Face, tempera, page of illuminated manuscript
Saint John the Baptist; Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata
Hans Memling - Virgin and Child
Margaret of Austria
Scenes from the Life of Saint Augustine of Hippo
Hans Memling - Virgin and Child
Portrait of a Man, German painter
The Crucifixion, 15th century
The Crucifixion, 15th century
Juan de Flandes - Christ Appearing to His Mother
Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John the Baptist
Portrait of a Man, Florence, Italy, 15th century
Studies of ten (?) heads and two ears (recto); Studies of three figures and a head (verso)
Virgin and Child
Saint Michael; The Mass of Saint Gregory; Saint Jerome

Saint Michael; The Mass of Saint Gregory; Saint Jerome

Based on their close stylistic relationship with the central panel of the altarpiece of the Feeding of the Ten Thousand (National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne), these diminutive panels are attributed to the M... More

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

Netherlandish Painter (first half 16th century)

Christ Taking Leave of His Mother
Virgin and Child
The Nativity
Joseph Interpreting the Dreams of His Fellow Prisoners

Joseph Interpreting the Dreams of His Fellow Prisoners

Master of the Story of Joseph (Netherlandish, ca. 1500)

Virgin and Child with Saint Joseph
Virgin and Child in a Niche
Virgin and Child with a Dragonfly
Virgin and Child
Head of Saint John the Baptist on a Charger
Christ Blessing
Jan Sanders van Hemessen - The Calling of Matthew
The Annunciation, 16th century
The Nativity with Donors and Saints Jerome and Leonard
Christ Carrying the Cross, with the Crucifixion; The Resurrection, with the Pilgrims of Emmaus
Christ Shown to the People
Archangel Gabriel; The Virgin Annunciate
Virgin and Child with Four Angels
The  Annunciation, tempera, page of illuminated manuscript
The Rest on the Flight into Egypt
The Penitence of Saint Jerome
The Holy Family - Joos van Cleve
The Birth and Naming of Saint John the Baptist; (reverse) Trompe-l'oeil with Painting of The Man of Sorrows
The Holy Family - Joos van Cleve
The Last Supper
Adriaen Isenbrant - Man Weighing Gold
The Adoration of the Christ Child

The Adoration of the Christ Child

Workshop of the Master of Frankfurt (Netherlandish, active Antwerp, ca. 1496–1518)

Bernard van Orley - Virgin and Child with Angels
The Crucifixion with Saints and a Donor
Virgin and Child
The Adoration of the Magi
Jan Gossart - Portrait of a Man
The Lamentation, 16th century

The Lamentation, 16th century

Ambrosius Benson (Netherlandish, Lombardy (?), active by 1519–died 1550 Bruges)

The Last Judgment - Joos van Cleve
Portrait of a Woman
Jan Gossart - Christ Carrying the Cross
Adriaen Isenbrant - The Life of the Virgin
Virgin and Child - Joos van Cleve
The Rest on the Flight into Egypt
The Crucifixion with Donors and Saints Peter and Margaret
Virgin and Child
The Man of Sorrows
The Annunciation, 16th century - Joos van Cleve
The Adoration of the Magi
The Holy Family - Joos van Cleve

The Holy Family - Joos van Cleve

Workshop of Joos van Cleve (Netherlandish, Cleve ca. 1485–1540/41 Antwerp)

Christ Crowned with Thorns (Ecce Homo), and the Mourning Virgin
Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

Quentin Metsys (Netherlandish, Leuven 1466–1530 Kiel)

Erasmus of Rotterdam
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