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Dutch School

The Dutch School painters can be dated as Early Netherlandish (1400–1500), Dutch Renaissance (1500–1584), and, later, Dutch Golden Age painting in the United Provinces.

The detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting, led by Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the 1420s and 1430s, is today generally considered to be the beginning of the early Northern Renaissance in painting. This style was greatly respected in Italy, but there was little reciprocal influence on the North until nearly the end of the 15th century. Despite frequent cultural and artistic exchange, the Antwerp Mannerists (1500–1530) were unrelated to Italian Mannerism. Among notable northern painters were highly individualistic artists such as Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder who developed styles that were imitated by many subsequent generations. In the 16th century northern painters increasingly traveled to Italy, so the art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance Mannerism had a great impact on their work.

Hieronymus Bosch and Geertgen tot Sint Jans are well-known examples of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Dutch painters.

In the northern Netherlands, the Reformation brought religious painting almost completely to an end. Portrait painting was slow to spread from the elite to new riches. By the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem in a brief but intense phase of Northern Mannerism that also spread to Flanders. Between 1605 and 1635 over 100,000 paintings were produced in Haarlem. Rembrandt van Rijn, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Jan Steen are just a few names form the seventeenth century.
Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)
1426
1426
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1907
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1907
312 Media in collectionpage 1 of 4
Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)

Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)

Having just entered the room, the angel Gabriel is about to tell the Virgin Mary that she will be the mother of Jesus. The golden rays pouring in through the left oculus carry a miniature figure with a cross. O... more

Man in Prayer

Man in Prayer

This sitter joins his hands in prayer, contemplating what must have been a devotional image on an adjacent panel, now missing. The depiction of the features is very sensitive, particularly the nuanced rendering... more

Portrait of a Man in a Turban

Portrait of a Man in a Turban

This young man wears a red turban, known as a chaperon; his attire suggests the work was painted in the 1440s. The sitter’s hands originally occupied a smaller area, but the artist adjusted their position so th... more

The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment

The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, wrote in 1435 that Van Eyck, his court painter, was unequalled in his “art and science.” Modern critiques have praised Van Eyck for his ability to combine observations seeming... more

Head of Christ

Head of Christ

This intimate image of Christ’s head, intended for private devotion, derives from a lost picture of the Holy Face by Jan van Eyck, now known only through copies. Following the Eyckian composition, Petrus Christ... more

Portrait of a Carthusian

Portrait of a Carthusian

Petrus Christus was the leading painter of Bruges in the years following the death of Jan van Eyck in 1441. In this portrait of striking verisimilitude, the artist moves beyond the flat neutral backgrounds of p... more

A Goldsmith in his Shop

A Goldsmith in his Shop

A celebrated masterpiece of Northern Renaissance Art, this painting was signed and dated 1449 by Petrus Christus, the leading painter in Bruges (Flanders) after the death of Jan van Eyck. The panel attests to N... more

The Lamentation

The Lamentation

Intended for private devotion, this emotionally charged painting depicts the Lamentation according to the Gospel of John. It includes both Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, who lift Christ’s dead body by his h... more

The Annunciation

The Annunciation

This Annunciation is exceptional for its bird’s-eye view and outdoor setting. Sheltered in the doorway of a church and greeted by Gabriel, Mary is presented not only as the Annunciate, but also as the personifi... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

Dieric Bouts has based this small, exquisite image on the ancient Byzantine formula for the affectionate Virgin (glykophilousa)—a type popular in the Netherlands. However, he has dispensed with the gold backgro... more

Francesco d'Este (born about 1430, died after 1475)

Francesco d'Este (born about 1430, died after 1475)

Francesco was the son of Leonello d'Este, ruler of Ferrara, but he received his education in the Netherlands at the court of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy. The hammer and ring may be jousting prizes or symb... more

Head of a Donor

Head of a Donor

Similar to the Donor Presented by a Saint (32.100.41), this portrait was cut from a larger religious work. The man would have been kneeling in prayer, perhaps before a devotional scene or holy figures. His garm... more

A Donor Presented by a Saint

A Donor Presented by a Saint

In later centuries, altarpieces were sometimes dismantled and cut into smaller fragments. In this case, the original religious panel included a full-length portrait of the donor. At some point he was cut out fr... more

The Annunciation

The Annunciation

One of the largest surviving depictions of the Annunciation, this imposing painting may have been the left wing of a triptych, as suggested by its tall, narrow shape and the diagonal thrust of the composition. ... more

The Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi

This Adoration is one of only two surviving works painted by Justus of Ghent before he went to Italy in 1469 to work for Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino. The stage-like space and arrangement of the main... more

Portrait of a Young Man

Portrait of a Young Man

This haunting portrait was painted in Sicily about 1470–72. Trained in Naples in the Netherlandish technique of oil painting, Antonello set the standard for portraiture when he came to Venice in 1475. Long befo... more

Tommaso di Folco Portinari (1428–1501); Maria Portinari (Maria Maddalena Baroncelli, born 1456)

Tommaso di Folco Portinari (1428–1501); Maria Portinari (Maria Maddale...

The clever balance of verisimilitude and idealization in the features of this pair made Hans Memling the most sought-after portraitist of his day. The Florentine Tommaso Portinari was the branch manager of the ... more

Portrait of a Young Man

Portrait of a Young Man

One of the most sought-after Netherlandish portrait painters of his time, Memling’s meticulous attention to detail is notable in the remarkable naturalism of the sitter’s physiognomy and the texture of his velv... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

This small roundel of the Virgin suckling the Christ Child belongs to a large group of similar tondos, all of which derive from a composition by Robert Campin that was widely disseminated via workshop patterns.... more

Portrait of a Woman

Portrait of a Woman

Netherlandish or French

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

This tender image of the Virgin and Child is the finest surviving copy of a lost prototype painted by Bouts near the end of his life. Among fifteen other examples, it is set apart by the high quality of its lan... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

Hugo van der Goes produced some of the most celebrated altarpieces of the Northern Renaissance. The heightened realism of this portrait, especially the emerging beard, is a hallmark of his work. By setting the ... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

Devotional images of the breastfeeding Virgin, the Virgo lactans, became extremely popular in fifteenth-century painting, particularly in Bruges, where the Sint-Donaaskerk housed relics of Mary’s hair and milk.... more

Portrait of an Old Man

Portrait of an Old Man

This sympathetic portrayal of an elderly man once formed a diptych with a portrait of an old woman (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston). Unlike the devotional portraits of Tommaso and Maria Portinari displayed nearby... more

The Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi

Technical examination of numerous works by Hieronymus Bosch has allowed for the reconsideration of his oeuvre. Long thought to be a later pastiche, this panel can now be placed among Bosch's earliest autograph ... more

Salvator Mundi

Salvator Mundi

Christ is shown here as the Savior of the World (Salvator Mundi), holding in his left hand a cross-topped globe representing the earth, while his right hand is raised in blessing. This was a popular type of ima... more

A Benedictine Monk

A Benedictine Monk

This man’s robe and tonsured hair indicate that he is a Benedictine, but whether this is a portrait of a contemporary monk or an image of a saint is not clear. The panel was cut from a larger image, and unlike ... more

Saint Christopher and the Infant Christ

Saint Christopher and the Infant Christ

Follower of Dieric Bouts (Netherlandish, Haarlem, active by 1457–died 1475)

Virgin and Child with Saint Anne Presenting Anna van Nieuwenhove

Virgin and Child with Saint Anne Presenting Anna van Nieuwenhove

Master of the Saint Ursula Legend (Netherlandish, active late 15th century)

Abner's Messenger before David (?); The Queen of Sheba Bringing Gifts to Solomon; The Annunciation

Abner's Messenger before David (?); The Queen of Sheba Bringing Gifts ...

These panels, showing narrative scenes of Abner's Messenger before David (?) and The Queen of Sheba Bringing Gifts to Solomon, once formed the interior wings of a triptych. The Annunciation on the reverse sides... more

Young Man Holding a Book

Young Man Holding a Book

The heart-shaped book this sitter holds is probably a prayer book; he is depicted before a view of the church of Sainte Gudule in Brussels, where a mass is performed by a priest in the background. The man’s ide... more

The Crucifixion

The Crucifixion

The monogram painted in gold in the lower right hand corner—an "I" superimposed on an "M"—has yet to be associated with any known artist. Both the composition and figure types are clearly influenced by the pain... more

The Annunciation

The Annunciation

Memling modeled this Annunciation on the left wing of Rogier van der Weyden’s Saint Columba Altarpiece (now in Munich), but his innovative rendition portrays the Virgin swooning and supported by two angels, rat... more

Saint John the Baptist; Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata

Saint John the Baptist; Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata

While John the Baptist was frequently represented in Netherlandish art, his pairing with Saint Francis is rare in the North. The latter was venerated especially in southern Europe, suggesting that these paintin... more

Holy Face

Holy Face

This tiny manuscript illumination, a sympathetic portrait of Christ, belongs to the tradition of religious images known as acheiropoita, images believed to have been created miraculously. It is one of a group o... more

Young Woman with a Pink

Young Woman with a Pink

Rather than depicting a specific woman, this painting of an idealized beauty was once part of an allegorical diptych. Together with its pendant (Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam), the panel represents t... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

Follower of Hans Memling (Netherlandish, Seligenstadt, active by 1465–died 1494 Bruges)

Margaret of Austria

Margaret of Austria

The daughter of Emperor Maximilian I, Margaret of Austria was betrothed at the age of three to the infant dauphin Charles, the future Charles VIII, and served briefly as "queen of France" from 1483 to 1491. She... more

Scenes from the Life of Saint Augustine of Hippo

Scenes from the Life of Saint Augustine of Hippo

This painting was the central panel of a triptych dedicated to Saint Augustine (354–430), a Christian theologian so celebrated that he is sometimes called a Doctor of the Church. The composition is divided into... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

This picture was most likely the pendant to a portrait or the central element of a triptych; the apple handed to the Child alludes to Christ as the future Redeemer of mankind. Although a workshop product, the c... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

This portrait of an unidentified man, depicted in an interior with a landscape seen through the open window at the left, ultimately derives from a composition developed by early Netherlandish masters, namely Di... more

The Crucifixion

The Crucifixion

In this poignant image, the Crucifixion is presented as an enactment of the written word due to the inclusion of Saint Jerome. The Church Father is shown as somewhat detached from the event at hand, but reading... more

The Crucifixion

The Crucifixion

This exquisite private devotional painting contrasts Mary’s joy at the Annunciation, shown in the background, with her sorrow at the Crucifixion, where she swoons in John’s arms. The darkened sky heightens the ... more

Christ Appearing to His Mother

Christ Appearing to His Mother

Probably trained in Bruges, Juan de Flandes immigrated to Spain to serve at the court of Isabella of Castile. In this painting he suppressed his own individual style and closely copied one of the panels in Rogi... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

In painting this fine portrait, which dates about 1497, Fra Bartolomeo took as his model the work of Hans Memling, whose portraits of Florentine merchants in Bruges were well known in Italy. Like Leonardo da Vi... more

Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John the Baptist

Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John the Baptist

Fra Bartolomeo was among the most creative painters in late-fifteenth-century Florence. This work dates about 1497, before he joined the Dominican order. The lively play of hands and the elaborate configuration... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

Netherlandish

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

The Virgin in a Rose Garden—with the figure sometimes shown crowned—was one of the favorite courtly themes of late Gothic painting. The picture's style reflects Provost's training with the manuscript illuminato... more

Virgin and Child in a Niche

Virgin and Child in a Niche

Like David’s Virgin and Child with Four Angels (displayed nearby), this picture reflects the popularity of Van Eyck’s Virgin and Child at the Fountain. Formerly attributed to Jan van Eyck and Petrus Christus, i... more

Christ Taking Leave of His Mother

Christ Taking Leave of His Mother

David also worked as a manuscript illuminator, a skill reflected in this picture’s delicacy of execution. The panel—now in a modern frame—originally formed the right wing of a devotional diptych that would clos... more

Virgin and Child with Saint Joseph

Virgin and Child with Saint Joseph

Netherlandish Painter, second half of 16th century

Christ Blessing

Christ Blessing

This highly spiritual and exquisitely rendered Christ Blessing was adapted from Byzantine icons brought to the Low Countries in the fifteenth century. The panel differs from the Byzantine models in the freshnes... more

Head of Saint John the Baptist on a Charger

Head of Saint John the Baptist on a Charger

This grisly depiction of John the Baptist's severed head was once an extremely popular image, due to the saint’s growing cult in the Middle Ages. Since John was considered to be Christ’s forerunner and herald, ... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

In the last half of the fifteenth and well into the sixteenth century in the Netherlands, individual pictures of the Virgin and Child were much in demand. Often they were hung on the walls of bedchambers or pla... more

The Nativity

The Nativity

This painting, which most likely was intended as a single, private devotional panel, combines the depiction of the Nativity and the Adoration of the Shepherds, as described in both biblical and mystical literat... more

Virgin and Child with a Dragonfly

Virgin and Child with a Dragonfly

Among the eponymous masters of Northern Renaissance painting is one whose name derives from two remarkable panels in the National Gallery, London, that represent scenes from the life of Saint Giles. Although ce... more

The Annunciation

The Annunciation

These panels were part of a spectacular multi-storied polyptych commissioned by Vincenzo Sauli, a wealthy Italian banker and diplomat with connections to Bruges, for the high altar of the Benedictine abbey chur... more

The Nativity with Donors and Saints Jerome and Leonard

The Nativity with Donors and Saints Jerome and Leonard

In a characteristically Netherlandish treatment of the Nativity, David focuses attention on the mystery of the Incarnation—that is, Christ's birth and sacrifice for the redemption of mankind. Despite the joyful... more

Virgin and Child with Four Angels

Virgin and Child with Four Angels

Gerard David, the leading painter in Bruges in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, followed the legacy of Jan van Eyck. In this painting he has taken the Virgin and Child from his predecessor’s we... more

Christ Carrying the Cross, with the Crucifixion; The Resurrection, with the Pilgrims of Emmaus

Christ Carrying the Cross, with the Crucifixion; The Resurrection, wit...

Gerard David painted in Bruges all his life. Where he trained is unknown, though his early works show the influence of his northern Netherlandish roots. The Annunciation panels (1975.1.120), which were painted ... more

Archangel Gabriel; The Virgin Annunciate

Archangel Gabriel; The Virgin Annunciate

Gerard David painted in Bruges all his life. Where he trained is unknown, though his early works show the influence of his northern Netherlandish roots, and of the art of Hugo van der Goes and Dieric Bouts. The... more

Christ Shown to the People

Christ Shown to the People

Perhaps part of a diptych, the panel depicts Pilate presenting Christ to the Hebrews for judgment. In keeping with its devotional function, Mostaert places the main figures close to the picture plane, showing t... more

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt

This composition presents the Flight into Egypt as a continuous narrative. In a tiny background scene the Holy Family emerges from the forest, en route to the contemporary Netherlandish town at the left. In the... more

The Holy Family

The Holy Family

The motif of the Virgin and Child is quoted from Jan van Eyck's regal Lucca Madonna of about 1435 (Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt). Reduced to a half-length image and placed in a domestic setting, the com... more

The Penitence of Saint Jerome

The Penitence of Saint Jerome

Acknowledging Patinir’s leading role in a new genre, Albrecht Dürer referred to the artist in 1521 as the "good landscape painter." This intact altarpiece was probably a German commission, since its exterior wi... more

The Birth and Naming of Saint John the Baptist; (reverse) Trompe-l'oeil with Painting of The Man of Sorrows

The Birth and Naming of Saint John the Baptist; (reverse) Trompe-l'oei...

This panel once formed the left wing of an altarpiece dedicated to Saint John the Baptist that was commissioned by abbot Jacques Coëne for the Benedictine Abbey Church in Marchiennes, near Tournai. It depicts S... more

Man Weighing Gold

Man Weighing Gold

This portrait is among the first to depict a professional activity. Weighing gold coins while dressed in expensive fur, the sitter may have been one of the many merchants in Bruges who handled commodities, a mo... more

The Holy Family

The Holy Family

The popularity of Joos van Cleve's Holy Family compositions provided an impetus for the mass production of paintings on this theme; the present example is by an artist in Joos's workshop. He transferred the ori... more

The Last Supper

The Last Supper

At least three artists collaborated on this well-preserved altarpiece, which is still in its original (though regilt) frame. Adam and Eve on the exterior are based on Dürer's 1504 engraving of the subject. The ... more

Virgin and Child with Angels

Virgin and Child with Angels

Van Orley probably painted this refined and intimate picture of the Virgin and Child about the time of his appointment in 1518 as official painter to Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands. A courtly Ma... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

Bening, a celebrated miniaturist, has taken the Virgin and Child from David's Rest on the Flight into Egypt (displayed nearby) and placed them in a different context. Joseph is absent, and there is no overt ref... more

The Crucifixion with Saints and a Donor

The Crucifixion with Saints and a Donor

In this splendid triptych the talents of a landscape specialist have been combined with those of the figurative painter Joos van Cleve. The setting for the Crucifixion, witnessed by the Virgin, Saint John and t... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

This is the only independent portrait by Gossart that is signed; the scroll reads, "Joannes Malbodius pingebat." The sitter is turned to the left in a three-quarter view against a dark background, a format that... more

Christ Carrying the Cross

Christ Carrying the Cross

In this diminutive panel, Christ appears isolated outside the walls of Jerusalem, stumbling and weighed down by the heavy burden of the cross that he bears. Intended for private meditation, Gossart’s deeply fel... more

The Last Judgment

The Last Judgment

This majestic scene is divided into heavenly and earthly zones, which are linked by two hovering angels blowing trumpets. Christ appears at the moment of judgment in a burst of light and color, surrounded by cl... more

The Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi

First established in Bruges, Gerard David also joined the painter’s guild in Antwerp in 1515, where his compositions and motifs soon began to circulate. This excellently preserved panel is strongly indebted to ... more

The Lamentation

The Lamentation

Ambrosius Benson (Netherlandish, Lombardy (?), active by 1519–died 1550 Bruges)

Portrait of a Woman

Portrait of a Woman

Departing from earlier devotional portraits, the sitter appears distracted from her prayer book by something on our side of the frame. This portrait reflects humanist interests and a modern approach to portrait... more

The Life of the Virgin

The Life of the Virgin

One of Adriaen Isenbrant’s earliest works, this small, portable triptych was intended for private devotion. Both the exterior and interior scenes were meant to engage the viewer in an empathic contemplation of ... more

The Crucifixion with Donors and Saints Peter and Margaret

The Crucifixion with Donors and Saints Peter and Margaret

Engebrechtsz was the leading painter in Leiden in the early sixteenth century. In this strikingly symmetrical Crucifixion, piety and dramatic energy are combined, and emotional effect is pushed to an extreme. T... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

Master of the Female Half-Lengths (Netherlandish, active ca. 1525–50)

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt

Growing demand for panel paintings in early sixteenth-century Antwerp, encouraged artists to specialize and collaborate; this picture was probably the result of such a collaboration. The charming landscape is c... more

The Man of Sorrows

The Man of Sorrows

Aelbert Bouts, one of Dieric's sons, is known for his gruesome renditions of devotional subjects painted by his father. The focus on Christ's pain and suffering, expressed in the prominently displayed wounds an... more

Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

Two iconographic themes are combined in this splendid painting: the joys of motherhood and the sorrowful premonition of Christ's death. The sleeping infant is traditionally understood as a prefiguration of the ... more

The Annunciation

The Annunciation

Gabriel and Mary are presented within an elaborately furnished interior that would have been familiar to sixteenth-century viewers. However, most of the objects, arranged unobtrusively within the room, carry sy... more

The Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi

This intentionally claustrophobic composition is characteristic of the Antwerp Mannerist style of the first half of the sixteenth century. The scene is viewed up close, with half-length, gesticulating figures s... more

The Holy Family

The Holy Family

Workshop of Joos van Cleve (Netherlandish, Cleve ca. 1485–1540/41 Antwerp)

Christ Crowned with Thorns (Ecce Homo), and the Mourning Virgin

Christ Crowned with Thorns (Ecce Homo), and the Mourning Virgin

In this austere and haunting image, Christ is depicted in the form of an Ecce Homo—presented to the people of Jerusalem by Pilate, the Roman prefect of Jerusalem, prior to being led off to be crucified.  He wea... more

Erasmus of Rotterdam

Erasmus of Rotterdam

Hans Holbein the Younger was one of the most celebrated portraitists of the sixteenth century. At an early age he won commissions to paint portraits of prominent merchants in Basel, and in later years he attrac... more

Jacob Willemsz. van Veen (1456–1535), the Artist's Father

Jacob Willemsz. van Veen (1456–1535), the Artist's Father

This sober image of the artist's father was painted in the year Heemskerck left Haarlem for an extended trip to Italy. The inscription on the parapet reads, "My son portrayed me here when I had lived seventy-fi... more

Portrait of a Man with Gloves

Portrait of a Man with Gloves

Because this portrait is closely related to Corneille’s only documented painting (Louvre, Paris), it is a touchstone for attributions to the artist. Corneille pays particular attention to details of personal ad... more

Anne de Pisseleu (1508–1576), Duchesse d'Étampes

Anne de Pisseleu (1508–1576), Duchesse d'Étampes

Renowned for her brilliance and beauty, Anne de Pisseleu was the mistress of Francis I. She was introduced to the king at court in 1526 when she was seventeen. After his death in 1547, she was dismissed from co... more

Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh: An Allegory of the Dinteville Family

Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh: An Allegory of the Dinteville Family

In this large, allegorical family portrait, the Dinteville brothers act out a scene from Exodus 7:9. Pleading with Pharaoh to free the Israelites, Aaron (François II de Dinteville) transforms his rod into a ser... more

Portrait of a Man with His Hand on His Chest

Portrait of a Man with His Hand on His Chest

Attributed to Corneille de Lyon (Netherlandish, active by 1533, died 1575)

Portrait of a Man with Gloves

Portrait of a Man with Gloves

The striking formality of the pose of this sitter holding gloves, and his direct address of the viewer, may indicate his prominent position in society. Attributed to Corneille de Lyon (Netherlandish, The Hague,... more

The Arrival in Bethlehem

The Arrival in Bethlehem

The development of landscape painting as an independent genre advances in this picture beyond the works of Patinir, since the religious narrative is more fully integrated into the extensive landscape. The viewe... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

Based on the sitter’s costume, this portrait of a self-assured inhabitant of Lyon may be dated around 1540-50. Attributed to Corneille de Lyon (Netherlandish, The Hague, active by 1533–died 1575 Lyons)

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

Attributed to Corneille de Lyon (Netherlandish, The Hague, active by 1533–died 1575 Lyons)

The Temptation of Saint Anthony

The Temptation of Saint Anthony

Herri met de Bles, of whose life little is known, was the most important Flemish landscape painter after Joachim Patinir. This fine panel (better preserved at the left than at the right) is characteristic of a ... more

Self-portrait

Self-portrait

Written in gold on a red background is an inscription that identifies this miniature as a self-portrait of the famous Bruges illuminator, Simon Bening: "Simon Bennik, the son of Alexander, painted this himself ... more