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Dutch Golden Age

Dutch Golden Age Prints and Painting: Still life, Landscape, and Genre Art. Created by: PICRYLDated: 1600
Margaretha van Clootwijk (born about 1580/81, died 1662), Wife of Jacob van Dalen
The Dutch Golden Age was a period from 1581 to 1672, when the Netherlands experienced the "Dutch Miracle", transcended to the foremost maritime and economic power.

In 1568, the Seven Provinces started a rebellion against Philip II of Spain, leading to the Eighty Years' War with Spain and the Thirty Years' War between other European superpowers.

Protestants moved from the southern to the northern Netherlands, many settled in Amsterdam, transforming a port town into one of the most important commercial centers in the world by 1630. In addition to the migration of Protestants, there were also influxes of refugees who had previously fled from religious persecution, particularly Sephardi Jews from Portugal and Spain, and Protestants from France. Catholics moved in the other direction - to the southern provinces, modern Belgium.

North quickly gained the highest literacy rates in Europe, an abundance of capital, the largest merchant fleet in Europe. The Dutch dominated trade in the Baltic Sea, between China and Japan, and with the English colonies in North America. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was the first multinational corporation, financed by shares that established the first modern stock exchange. The Bank of Amsterdam, the first central bank, was established in 1609.

The Dutch Golden Age is the art period dominanted by Rembrandt, Vermeer, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Frans Hals. Some notable artistic styles and trends include Haarlem Mannerism, Utrecht Caravaggism, the School of Delft, the Leiden fijnschilders, and Dutch classicism.

1672 is called a disaster year" when the Dutch Republic was attacked by England, France, Münster, and Bavaria. The invading armies quickly defeated most of the Dutch States Army and conquered part of the Republic.
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The Adoration of the Shepherds

The Adoration of the Shepherds

Attributed to Aertgen Claesz. van Leyden (Netherlandish, Leiden 1498–1564 Leiden)

Landscape

Landscape

Hans Bol (Netherlandish, Mechelen 1534–1593 Amsterdam)

Study of a Tree

Study of a Tree

Jacques de Gheyn II (Netherlandish, Antwerp 1565–1629 The Hague)

King David driven from Jerusalem

King David driven from Jerusalem

Jan Rombouts (Flemish, ca. 1475–1535)

Paten
The Pentecost

The Pentecost

Master of the Egmont Albums (Netherlandish, 16th century)

Rest on the Flight to Egypt

Rest on the Flight to Egypt

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

Study of a Standing Male Nude

Study of a Standing Male Nude

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

The Adoration of the Shepherds (Cartoon)

The Adoration of the Shepherds (Cartoon)

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

The Soldier Carrying His Pike at the Slope

The Soldier Carrying His Pike at the Slope

Jacques de Gheyn II (Netherlandish, Antwerp 1565–1629 The Hague)

A Hungarian Horseman

A Hungarian Horseman

Roelandt Savery (Flemish, Kortrijk 1576–1639 Utrecht)

Designs for Book Illustrations

Designs for Book Illustrations

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

Asia

Asia

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century ?

Knife
Venus Visiting the Forge of Vulcan

Venus Visiting the Forge of Vulcan

Pauwels Franck, called Paolo Fiammingo (Flemish, Antwerp 1540–1596 Venice)

Wineglass
Landscape with Mercury Holding Argus's Head

Landscape with Mercury Holding Argus's Head

Hieronymus Cock (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1510–1570 Antwerp)

The Month of February: Man Pruning a Tree

The Month of February: Man Pruning a Tree

Attributed to Erasmus Hornick (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1520–1583 Prague)

Saint Luke Painting the Virgin

Saint Luke Painting the Virgin

Raphael Sadeler I (Netherlandish, Antwerp 1560–1628 Venice (?))

Miracle of Saint Gregory

Miracle of Saint Gregory

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

Mordecai overhears the two Conspirators plotting against the  King.

Mordecai overhears the two Conspirators plotting against the King.

? Circle of Pseudo-Aert Ortkens (Flemish, 1510–1540)

Temptation of St Anthony

Temptation of St Anthony

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

Medallion
Juno Appearing to Sea Gods

Juno Appearing to Sea Gods

Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem (Netherlandish, Haarlem 1562–1638 Haarlem)

Design for Silver Plate Decorated with Crabs

Design for Silver Plate Decorated with Crabs

Erasmus Hornick (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1520–1583 Prague)

Four Landscapes with the Four Seasons

Four Landscapes with the Four Seasons

Hendrick van Schoel (Flemish, active Rome, ca. 1565–1622)

Allegory of the Triumph of the Church

Allegory of the Triumph of the Church

Jan van der Straet, called Stradanus (Netherlandish, Bruges 1523–1605 Florence)

Market Scene

Market Scene

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

Europe

Europe

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century ?

The Battle of Trasimeno

The Battle of Trasimeno

Crispijn van den Broeck (Netherlandish, Mechelen ca. 1524–ca. 1591 Antwerp)

Mountainous Landscape

Mountainous Landscape

Tobias Verhaecht (Netherlandish, Antwerp 1561–1631 Antwerp)

Design for Shallow Round Dish on Three Legs

Design for Shallow Round Dish on Three Legs

Erasmus Hornick (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1520–1583 Prague)

Venationes ferarum avium, piscium...

Venationes ferarum avium, piscium...

after Jan van der Straet, called Stradanus (Netherlandish, Bruges 1523–1605 Florence)

Design for a Vignette in Strap-Work

Design for a Vignette in Strap-Work

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

Seated Man, Precariously Balanced, Playing Bagpipes

Seated Man, Precariously Balanced, Playing Bagpipes

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

Censer
Adoration of the Shepherds

Adoration of the Shepherds

Aertgen Claesz. van Leyden (Netherlandish, Leiden 1498–1564 Leiden)

Elijah Fed by Ravens

Elijah Fed by Ravens

Jan Muller (Netherlandish, Amsterdam 1571–1628 Amsterdam)

Levi Avenging the Honor of his Sister Dinah

Levi Avenging the Honor of his Sister Dinah

Crispijn van den Broeck (Netherlandish, Mechelen ca. 1524–ca. 1591 Antwerp)

A Reclining Peasant (recto); Study of a Young Man (verso)

A Reclining Peasant (recto); Study of a Young Man (verso)

Jacques de Gheyn II (Netherlandish, Antwerp 1565–1629 The Hague)

Neptune in his Chariot

Neptune in his Chariot

Attributed to Pieter de Jode I (Netherlandish, Antwerp 1570–Antwerp 1634)

The Month of April: Man Grafting a Branch onto a Tree

The Month of April: Man Grafting a Branch onto a Tree

Erasmus Hornick (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1520–1583 Prague)

Village Fair

Village Fair

Master of the Hermitage Sketchbook (Netherlandish, 16th century)

An Eagle Preaching to the Animals

An Eagle Preaching to the Animals

Attributed to Marcus Gheraerts the Elder (Flemish, Bruges ca. 1520–ca. 1590 London (?) (active England)) , attributed to

The Death of Saint Hilary; verso: Sketch of an Arm

The Death of Saint Hilary; verso: Sketch of an Arm

Jan van Scorel (Netherlandish, Schoorl 1495–1562 Utrecht)

Africa from The Four Continents

Africa from The Four Continents

Julius Goltzius (Netherlandish, died ca. 1595)

Fantastic Landscape with Figures Crossing a Bridge

Fantastic Landscape with Figures Crossing a Bridge

Lancelot Blondeel (Flemish, Poperinghe 1498–1561 Bruges)

Landscape

Landscape

Hans Bol (Netherlandish, Mechelen 1534–1593 Amsterdam)

Design for a platter

Design for a platter

Erasmus Hornick (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1520–1583 Prague)

Queen Esther hears of the Decree against the Jews.

Queen Esther hears of the Decree against the Jews.

Circle of Pseudo-Aert Ortkens (Flemish, 1510–1540)

Jael Killing Sisera, without ornamental frame (copy)

Jael Killing Sisera, without ornamental frame (copy)

After Lucas van Leyden (Netherlandish, Leiden ca. 1494–1533 Leiden)

The Greatness of Mordecai

The Greatness of Mordecai

? Circle of Pseudo-Aert Ortkens (Flemish, 1510–1540)

Study of a Tree

Study of a Tree

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

The Destruction of the Pharaoh’s Army

The Destruction of the Pharaoh’s Army

Hendrick de Clerck (Netherlandish, 1570–1629)

Design for Serving Piece

Design for Serving Piece

Erasmus Hornick (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1520–1583 Prague)

Resurrection of Christ

Resurrection of Christ

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century ?

Ecce Homo

Ecce Homo

Maarten van Heemskerck (Netherlandish, Heemskerck 1498–1574 Haarlem)

Design for a Silver- gilt Flask Decorated with Strapwork, Masks, Moresques

Design for a Silver- gilt Flask Decorated with Strapwork, Masks, Mores...

Erasmus Hornick (Netherlandish, Antwerp ca. 1520–1583 Prague)

Censer
Man on a Donkey in a Landscape

Man on a Donkey in a Landscape

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century

Bacchus, Music, Amor

Bacchus, Music, Amor

Johann Sadeler I (Netherlandish, Brussels 1550–1600/1601 Venice)

The Judgment of Paris

The Judgment of Paris

Pieter de Jode I (Netherlandish, Antwerp 1570–Antwerp 1634)

Imaginary Hilly Landscape with Ruins

Imaginary Hilly Landscape with Ruins

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century