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Crimean War

Crimean War October 1853 - March 1856.
Russian Empire lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.
Nicholas I of Russia issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman Empire be placed under his protection. Britain attempted to mediate and arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes, Nicholas refused and prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853.
The war started in the Balkans, when Russian troops occupied the Danubian Principalities, until then under Ottoman suzerainty and now part of modern Romania, and began to cross the Danube. Fearing an Ottoman collapse, France and Britain rushed into the war without much success.
Frustrated by the wasted effort, and with demands for action from their citizens, the allied force decided to attack the center of Russian strength in the Black Sea at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. After extended preparations, the forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and fought their way to a point south of Sevastopol. The Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but at the cost of seriously depleting the British Army forces. A second counterattack, ordered personally by Nicholas, was defeated by Omar Pasha.
Sevastopol fell after eleven months, and neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. This was welcomed by France and Britain, as their subjects were beginning to turn against their governments as the war dragged on. The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856. Russia was forbidden from hosting warships in the Black Sea.
The Crimean War was one of the first conflicts to use modern technologies such as explosive naval shells, railways, and telegraphs.
Sebastopol from the sea - sketched from the deck of H.M.S. Sidon / W. Simpson delt. ; T. Picken lith.
526 Media in collectionpage 1 of 6

5 November 1854 from "The War in the Crimea ... With portraits and plans"

This image has been taken from scan 000152 from "The War in the Crimea ... With portraits and plans". The title and subject terms of this image have been generated from tags, created by users of the British Lib... more

map from "The War in the Crimea ... With portraits and plans"

This image has been taken from scan 000104 from "The War in the Crimea ... With portraits and plans". The title and subject terms of this image have been generated from tags, created by users of the British Lib... more

music from "Travels to the Seat of War in the East, through Russia and the Crimea, in 1829, etc. [With plates and a map.]"

This image has been taken from scan 000675 from "Travels to the Seat of War in the East, through Russia and the Crimea, in 1829, etc. [With plates and a map.]". The title and subject terms of this image have be... more

map from "Travels to the Seat of War in the East, through Russia and the Crimea, in 1829, etc. [With plates and a map.]"

This image has been taken from scan 000364 from "Travels to the Seat of War in the East, through Russia and the Crimea, in 1829, etc. [With plates and a map.]". The title and subject terms of this image have be... more

Captain Pechell, 77th

Captain Pechell, full-length portrait, seated on horse, facing left.

The interior of the Redan taken from its left face, looking towards the salient angle, looking south / / W. Simpson del. ; E. Walker lith. ; Day & Son, Lithrs. to the Queen.

Interior view of the of the Redan showing battery during the occupation by British forces after the Russians abandoned Sevastopolʹ in September 1855.

The old Genoese Castle at Balaklava, from above the castle pier

View of ships in Balaklava harbor and hill with castle or fort ruins, conical tents, buildings, and animals.

Second charge of the guards - when they retook the two gun battery at the battle of Inkermann / W. Simpson del. ; E. Morin lith.

Print shows British and Russian troops engaged in battle during the battle of Inkerman.

Captain Hall, & group of the 14th

Eight soldiers posed near flagpole.

Two officers of the 47th Regiment

Two officers posed, one sitting on a horse, the other stands next to a horse; a man standing in center saluting; and a fourth man is standing on the left.

Lieutenant Grills, R.H.A.

Lieutenant Grills, full-length portrait, wearing uniform, standing next to horse.

Captain Lord Balgonie, Grenadier Guards

Lord Balgonie, full-length portrait, wearing heavy coat, standing, facing slightly right, holding fur hat in right hand.

Highland Brigade camp, looking south / W. Simpson del. ; T. Picken lith.

Print shows an artillery battery with Capn. Mansfield, Major Shadwell, Lieut. Col. Stirling, Major Gordon, and Sir Colin Campbell standing near the cannons, with the camp of the Highland Brigade, showing huts a... more

Major Pipon, Royal Artillery

Major Pipon, full-length portrait, facing front.

Captain Godley, 28th Regiment

Captain Henry R.C. Godley, full-length portrait, wearing uniform, seated on a horse.

Lieutenant General Sir Harry Jones & Staff

Lieutenant General Sir Harry Jones, full-length portrait, seated in chair in front of building, "Lieutenant-Colonel Bouchier, Assistant Adjutant-General, Lieutenant Cowel, R.E., A.D.C., and Lieutenant Jameson, ... more

Major Woodford, Rifle Brigade

Major Woodford with hand on hip standing next to a horse.

Balaklava, looking towards the sea / W. Simpson del. ; W. Walton lith.

Print shows view of Balaklava looking over the rooftops toward the harbor which is getting crowded with British ships; two bell tents in the foreground, and remains of an old castle on the hillside in the background.

The north side of the harbour of Sebastopol - from the top of the harbour, 22nd June 1855 / W. Simpson del. ; J. Needham, lith. ; Day & Son, Lithrs. to the Queen.

Print shows a view of the north side of the harbor at Sevastopolʹ showing Russian forts on hills in the distance.

Lieutenant-General Sir John Campbell & group of officers

Lieutenant-General Sir John Campbell and other officers, some standing, some seated, full-length portrait.

Commander Ballan, officer on Bosquet's staff

Commander Ballan, full-length portrait, standing, facing slightly left.

Lieutenant General Barnard, C.B., Captain Barnard & servants

Lieutenant General Barnard, facing left, gesturing toward Captain Barnard with other staff around them in front of a wooden building.

Major General Estcourt, Adj.-Gen. to the British forces in the Crimea

Major-General James B. Estcourt, full-length portrait, wearing uniform and hat, facing right with left arm resting on wall.

Major Morris, C.B., Royal Artillery

Charles Henry Morris seated on horse facing left with bell tent in the background.

The cavalry affair of the heights of Bulganak - the first gun, 19th Sepr. 1854 / W. Simpson del. ; Needham lith.

Print shows expansive view of the countryside, the Russian cavalry and artillery in the distance, Russian guns opening fire on British troops as they draw up into formation.

The railway at Balaklava, looking south / W. Simpson, del. ; R. Carrick, lith. ; Day & Son, Lithrs. to the Queen.

Construction of the railway in Balaklava at the harbor, also shows masts of numerous ships, and on a hill in the distance, the ruins of the old Genoese castle.

Head of the harbour, Sebastopol / W. Simpson del. ; T. Picken lith.

Print shows bird's-eye view of the head of the harbor of Sevastopolʹ, with the mouth of the Tchernaya River in the center.

Officers of the 71st Highlanders

Officers of the 71st Highlanders with dog, posed before conical tent with military camp in background.

Major Daniels & officers

Three officers of the 5th Dragoon Guards, two standing and one sitting on ground, facing front.

Lieutenant General Sir H.J.W. Bentinck, K.C.B.

Sir Henry John William Bentinck, three-quarter portrait, standing, facing right with hand in shirt.

Brigadier General Lockyer & two of his staff

Brigadier General Henry Frederick Lockyer (seated center) and two of his staff of the 97th Regiment of Foot, full-length portrait, wearing uniforms, posed on steps in front of building.

Lieutenant General Sir Harry Jones, K.C.B.

Lieutenant General Sir Harry Jones, half-length portrait, standing with arm resting on stone wall.

The new works at the siege of Sebastopol on the right attack - from the mortar battery on the right of Gordon's battery / W. Simpson del. ; J. Needham lith.

Print shows a mortar battery with soldiers, two mortars, gabions, and earthworks, with a distant view of Sevastopolʹ.

Captain Inglis, 5th Dragoon Guards

Captain Inglis, astride a horse, facing front.

Dr. Sutherland, Sanitary Commission

Dr. Sutherland, full-length portrait, facing front, wearing suit, seated at table.

Colonel Wilbraham

Colonel Wilbraham, full-length portrait, seated with sword and binoculars, facing left.

Lieutenant General Pennefather & orderly

General Sir John L. Pennefather, full-length portrait, wearing uniform, seated on horse, and orderly, also full-length, in uniform of 4th Light Dragoons, seated on horse.

Major General Estcourt

Major General James B. Estcourt, three-quarter length portrait, facing left, arm resting on a wall.

Captain Drysdale, 42nd Regiment

Captain John Drysdale, full-length portrait, standing, facing front, holding reins of horse.

Excavated church in the caverns at Inkermann, looking west / W. Simpson, del. ; Day & Son, Lithrs. to the Queen.

Interior view of cavern showing remains of church and two soldiers firing over stone wall at entrance.

Colonel Clarke, Scots' Greys, with the horse wounded at Balaklava

Colonel George Clarke, full-length portrait, wearing uniform, standing beside his horse, Sultan, facing left; horse's reins are held by a man who is possibly a servant; horse's rump is branded "2D" for 2nd Drag... more

Captain Burnaby, Grenadier Guards

Captain Burnaby, full-length portrait, seated on gabion, facing slightly right, holding sword in left hand.

Lieutenant Strangeways [i.e., Strangways], Royal Horse Artillery

Lieutenant Strangways, seated on horse, facing left.

The valley of the shadow of death Caves in the Woronzoff Road behind the 21 gun battery / / W. Simpson, del. ; J. Needham, lith. ; Day & Son, Lithrs. to the Queen.

Broad view of the landscape along the Woronzoff Road showing entrance to valley and, in the foreground, soldiers carrying wounded on a stretcher.

Captain Vam, friend & servant, 38th Regiment

Three men standing next to horse.

Officers of the 88th Regiment

Group portrait of officers of the 88th Regiment.

Colonel Adye & Captain Whitmore

Colonel Adye and Captain Whitmore, one man mounted, the other standing by horse, full-length portrait, facing front.

Dr. Marlow, 28th Regiment

Dr. Marlow, full-length portrait, facing front, seated, holding sword.

Captain Graham & Captain Macleod, 42nd Regiment

Captain Graham and Captain Macleod, one seated and one standing in front of tent.

Lieutenant-colonel Shadforth at his hut & officers of the 57th Regiment

Lieutenant-colonel Thomas Shadforth sitting before his hut surrounded by officers in relaxed poses.

Cavalry camp, looking towards Kadikoi

View of encampment showing bell tents, huts, soldiers, and horses.

Commissariat difficulties - the road from Balaklava to Sevastopol, at Kadikoi, during the wet weather / W. Simpson del. ; E. Walker lith.

Print shows wagons and a cannon mired in mud, broken wagons, and dead or dying horses and oxen on the roadside, at Kadikoi, on the road to Sevastopolʹ.

Captain Webb's hut, 4th Dragoon Guards

Captain John MacDonnell Webb standing in the doorway of his hut looking at Colonel Hodge (standing in profile), Mrs. Rogers, Webb's servant with a horse, and several others; also shows three bell tents next to ... more

Looking towards Mackenzie's Heights, tents of the 33rd Regiment in the foreground

Photograph showing vast plain with encampments of tents, wagons, equipment, and military personnel, some on horseback.

Captain Fay on General Bosquets staff

Captain Fay, full-length portrait, seated, facing front, holding sword.

Captain Portal, 4th Light Dragoons equipped for Balaklava

Robert Portal, full-length portrait, standing, facing front, next to horse with two other unidentified men who are looking away from the camera.

Captain W.H. Seymour, 68th Light Infantry

Captain Seymour, seated on horseback.

The camp of the second division, looking east January 1855 / W. Simpson delt.

Print shows men on a roadway, horses tethered on the right, and a distant view of the tents of the 2nd Division during winter.

Sebastopol from the sea - sketched from the deck of H.M.S. Sidon / W. Simpson delt. ; T. Picken lith.

Print shows sailors and cannons on deck of the H.M.S. Sidon, with a distant view of the forts and other buildings in Sevastopolʹ.

Brigadier McPherson & officers of the 4th Division Captain Higham [i.e., Heigham], 17th Regiment; Captain Earle, Major of Brigade; Captain Croker, 17th Regiment; Captain Swire; Captain McPherson.

Brigadier Philip McPherson, CB., and captains Clement Henry John Heigham, William Henry Earle, (John L. or Edward) Croker, Roger Swire, and Philip McPherson, wearing uniform, posed next to tent.

Major General Sir R. Dacres, Captain Hamley & Colonel Adye

Two men seated and one standing in front doorway in building.

Charge of the heavy cavalry brigade, 25th Octr. 1854 / W. Simpson del. ; E. Walker lith.

Print shows the Enniskillen Dragoons and the 5th Dragoon Guards engaging the Russian cavalry in the midst of the camp of the light cavalry brigade which is being plundered by the Russian troops during the battl... more

The light-house at Cape Chersonese - looking south / W. Simpson del. ; T.G. Dutton lith.

Print shows a ship run aground before the lighthouse on Cape Chersonese, with men in rowboats attempting to pull the ship free.

Lord Raglan's head quarters at Khutor-Karagatch / W. Simpson delt. ; C. Haghe lith.

Print shows cluster of buildings being used by Lord Raglan as the British headquarters.

General Bosquet

General Bosquet, three-quarter length portrait, facing front.

Sebastopol from the rear of the English batteries / W. Simpson del. ; J. Needham lith.

Print shows a distant view of the English batteries and of Sevastopolʹ with British soldiers in the foreground on the road to the front.

The camp of the 1st Division, looking north towards the camp of the 2nd Division - the heights of Inkermann in the distance / W. Simpson del. ; M. Morin lith.

Print shows a distant view of bell tents at British military camps, as well as hospital tents, soldiers and a wagon hauling supplies toward the camps, the skeletal remains of an animal on the roadside, and men ... more

Field Marshall Lord Raglan

Lord Raglan, full-length portrait, seated on chair in doorway, facing slightly right, holding hat.

Two Zouaves

Two French Army Zouaves, wearing uniforms.

Officers of the 57th Regiment

Officers of the 57th Regiment posed before a conical tent with a dog in the foreground.

Maréchal Pélissier, G.C.B.

General Aimable-Jean-Jacques Pélissier, full-length portrait, seated on horse, facing left.

Brigadier Garrett

Robert Garrett, full-length portrait, seated on horse, facing left.

Lieutenant Colonel Prince Edward of Saxe Weimar

His Highness Prince William Augustus Edward of Saxe-Weimar, full-length portrait, seated outdoors, facing slightly left, wearing military uniform.

Major General Charles Ashe [sic] Windham

Charles Ash Windham, three-quarter length portrait, wearing uniform, seated, facing slightly left.

Major Chapman, 20th Regiment

Major Chapman, standing next to a horse, in front of a building.

The Monastery of St. George and Cape Fiolente - looking west / W. Simpson del. ; J. Needham lith.

Print shows the Monastery of St. George on the cliffs above Cape Fiolente, with view of the coastline.

The attack on the Malakoff / W. Simpson del. ; E. Morin, lith. ; Day & Son, Lithrs. to the Queen.

Print shows the French assault on the Malakoff, the main Russian fortification before Sevastopolʹ, French soldiers advancing from the left, Zouaves from the left foreground, crossing ditch and engaging Russian ... more

The field of Inkermann / W. Simpson delt. ; T. Picken lith.

Print shows the plains of Inkerman, ruins on the far right, a French battery on the left, and some soldiers in the foreground.

Colonel Airey & Major Hallewell

Two officers, one standing by horse, the other reclining on ground, with two attendants nearby.

Sebastopol with the Redan, Malakoff & Mamelon

Distant view of Sevastopolʹ and the principal Russian fortifcations.

Major General Sir George Buller, K.C.B.

Sir George Buller, full-length portrait, wearing uniform, seated on horse, in left profile.

Captain Brown, 4th Light Dragoons & servant, winter dress

Captain Brown, seated, and servant, full-length portrait, facing front, wearing winter uniforms, with tents in background.

Sergeant of British Light Infantry

Full-length portrait of soldier facing slightly right.

Nubian servants & horses

Two men, full-length portraits, facing front, standing with horses.