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There are not many details distinguishing the Confederates from the Union soldiers in many of portrait photographs - they really were from the same country, the same culture.
One of the differences that you do find is the less uniform appearance of Confederates: they are much less standard, often wearing bits and pieces of cast-off Union Army uniforms and often, even weaponry.
One thing that’s specific to the Confederates is huge Bowie knives, humorously called ‘Arkansas toothpicks,’ often made by local blacksmiths.
[Sergeant A.M. Chandler of the 44th Mississippi Infantry Regiment, Co. F., and Silas Chandler, family slave, with Bowie knives, revolvers, pepper-box, shotgun, and canteen]
695 Media in collectionpage 1 of 7

[Portrait of Lt. Col. James T. Weaver, 60th North Carolina Regiment, C.S.A.]

Lt. Col. Weaver was killed at Murfreesboro, Dec. 7, 1864.

[Portrait of Pvt. William Jackson Eskew, 13th Virginia Infantry, C.S.A.]

Pvt. Eskew was wounded in defense of Richmond, Va., early in 1865.

[Portrait of Pvt. Edwin Francis Jemison, 2nd Louisiana Regiment, C.S.A.]

Although previously identified as Private Edwin Francis Jennison, Georgia Regiment, C.S.A., recent research has established that this photograph is of Private Edwin Francis Jemison, 2nd Louisiana Regiment. He s... more

[Portrait of Pvt. Sampson Altman, Jr., Company C, 29th Regiment Georgia Volunteers, C.S.A.]

Pvt. Altman fought in the battle of Shiloh, died April 23, 1863 from disease.

Wm. Barksdale. Brig. Gen. Miss.

Head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left.

[Lieutenant William Sharpe Barnes, F Company, 4th North Carolina Infantry in frock coat]

Photograph shows identified soldier, William Sharpe Barnes, who enlisted in 1861 as a corporal.

Mrs. Ridgley Brown

Photograph shows Mrs. Ridgley (or Ridgely?) Brown, possibly the wife of Lieutenant Colonel Ridgely Brown of Co. K, 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment, and Co. A, 1st Maryland Cavalry Battalion, holding 11-star Confe... more

[Private Edward A. Cary of Company I, 44th Virginia Infantry Regiment, in uniform and his sister, Emma J. Garland née Cary]

Photograph shows identified soldier and woman; manuscript found with photograph. More information is in "Glimpses of Soldiers' Lives," http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/SoldierbiosCary.html

[James W. Millner of Company K, 38th Virginia Infantry Regiment with bayoneted musket, holstered pistol, and knife]

Photograph shows identified soldier, James W. Millner, who enlisted in Company K, 38th Virginia Infantry Regiment, as a sergeant; knife he carries may have been manufactured by Boyle & Gamble or Burger & Burger... more

Lieut. Washington, a Confederate prisoner, and Capt. Custer, U.S.A.

George Armstrong Custer, seated with Lieut. Washington and his slave.

[Sergeant A.M. Chandler of the 44th Mississippi Infantry Regiment, Co. F., and Silas Chandler, family slave, with Bowie knives, revolvers, pepper-box, shotgun, and canteen]

Photograph shows identified Confederate soldier, A.M. Chandler, and identified slave, Silas Chandler, who accompanied two Chandler brothers during their military service in the Civil War. For more information, ... more

Lt. Gen. Jas. Longstreet

Photograph shows Lieutenant General James Longstreet in uniform.

[Private Peter Jones of 12th Virginia Infantry Regiment, with pistol]

Photograph shows identified Confederate soldier.