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Cologne

Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, The Free Imperial City of Cologne.Created by: PICRYLDated: 1880
Cologne, Germany
In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Cologne) on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD and one of the most important trade and production centers in the Roman Empire until it was occupied by the Franks in 462.

By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City within the Holy Roman Empire. The Free Imperial City of Cologne must not be confused with the Electorate of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire.

Cologne's location at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west as well as the south-north was the basis of Cologne's growth. By 1300 the city population exceeded 50,000.

Cologne lost its status as a free city when all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire on the left bank of the Rhine were incorporated into the French Republic and Napoleon's Empire.

The Cologne Cathedral, started in 1248, abandoned in 1560, was eventually finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages.

By World War I, Cologne had grown to 700,000 inhabitants. During World War II, the Allies dropped 44,923 tons of bombs on the city, destroying 61% of buildings, causing 20,000 civilian casualties and wiped out the central part of the city. In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called Cologne the "world's greatest heap of rubble". The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s.
708 Media in collectionpage 1 of 8
Bell, bronze, Europe

Bell, bronze, Europe

Rome or Cologne

Bottle, 11th century

Bottle, 11th century

Made in Cologne

Crucifix, bronze, Europe

Crucifix, bronze, Europe

Made in Cologne or Mosan (?)

Reliquary Plaque with Christ Blessing

Reliquary Plaque with Christ Blessing

Made in possibly Cologne, Rhineland, Germany

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 190v

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 190v

Text in silver on a purple ground, framed by an acanthus border: 'Inter praecipuos paradysi quatuor amnes hic est verbi potens caeli simnista iohannes.' Image taken from f. 190v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels... More

Evangelist Luke from BL Harley 2820, f. 120

Evangelist Luke from BL Harley 2820, f. 120

Detail of a miniature of Luke, quill in hand, seated at a lecturn. Image taken from f. 120 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Incipit page of John's Gospel from BL Harley 2820, f. 192

Incipit page of John's Gospel from BL Harley 2820, f. 192

Incipit page of John's Gospel with illuminated initials, 'In' (principio erat verbum) and Christ in the centre, framed by an acanthus border with male portrait busts in four medallions. Image taken from f. 192 ... More

Incipit page of Matthew's Gospel from BL Harley 2820, f. 15

Incipit page of Matthew's Gospel from BL Harley 2820, f. 15

Incipit page of Matthew's Gospel with illuminated initials, 'Li'(ber), framed by an acanthus border with male portrait busts in four medallions. Image taken from f. 15 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with pr... More

Incipit page of Luke's Gospel from BL Harley 2820, f. 121

Incipit page of Luke's Gospel from BL Harley 2820, f. 121

Incipit page of Luke's Gospel with illuminated initial 'Q'(uoniam quidem), framed by an acanthus border with geometric motifs in four medallions. Image taken from f. 121 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with... More

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 3

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 3

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 3 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 5

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 5

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 5 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 2

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 2

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 2 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Evangelist John from BL Harley 2820, f. 191

Evangelist John from BL Harley 2820, f. 191

Miniature of John, holding a manuscript, seated at a lecturn. Image taken from f. 191 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Crucifixion from BL Eg 3018, f. 23v

Crucifixion from BL Eg 3018, f. 23v

Miniature with the Crucifixion, and historiated initial with God supporting the dead Christ, with a full foliate border. Image taken from f. 23v of Missal, Use of Cologne. Written in Latin.

Cornelius and Cyprian from BL Eg 3018, f. 92

Cornelius and Cyprian from BL Eg 3018, f. 92

Miniature with Cornelius and Cyprian. Image taken from f. 92 of Missal, Use of Cologne. Written in Latin.

Martin of Tours from BL Eg 3018, f. 117

Martin of Tours from BL Eg 3018, f. 117

Miniature with a bishop, probably Martin of Tours, with a crippled beggar. Image taken from f. 117 of Missal, Use of Cologne. Written in Latin.

Cross and ownership inscription from BL Harley 2767, f. 145v

Cross and ownership inscription from BL Harley 2767, f. 145v

Cross and the ownership inscription of Goderamnus, 'prepositus' of the abbey of St. Pantaleon, Cologne. Image taken from f. 145v of On Architecture (De architectura). Written in Latin.

Incipit page of Mark's Gospel from BL Harley 2820, f. 79

Incipit page of Mark's Gospel from BL Harley 2820, f. 79

Incipit page of Mark's Gospel with an illuminated initial, 'I'(nitium), framed by an acanthus border. Image taken from f. 79 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evan... More

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 13

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 13

Text in silver on a purple ground framed by an acanthus border: 'Hic pater in signis meritis Iheronimus almus scriptor et interpres divine legis habetur.' Image taken from f. 13 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels... More

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 6v

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 6v

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 6v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Evangelist Luke from BL Harley 2820, f. 120

Evangelist Luke from BL Harley 2820, f. 120

Miniature of Luke, quill in hand, seated at a lecturn. Image taken from f. 120 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 5v

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 5v

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 5v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Crucifixion, the Virgin from BL Eg 3018, ff. 23v-24

Crucifixion, the Virgin from BL Eg 3018, ff. 23v-24

Miniature of the Crucifixion, historiated initial with God supporting the dead Christ, and miniature with the Virgin and the kneeling owner in prayer, with full foliate borders. Image taken from ff. 23v-24 of M... More

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 7

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 7

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 7 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 4

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 4

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 4 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Jerome from BL Harley 2820, f. 12v

Jerome from BL Harley 2820, f. 12v

Miniature of Jerome, seated under a canopy, with the hand of God above. Image taken from f. 12v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 191v

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 191v

Text in silver on a purple ground, framed by an acanthus border: 'Initium s[an]c[t]i aevangelii s[e]c[un]d[u]m Iohannem.' Image taken from f. 191v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, a... More

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 3v

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 3v

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 3v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 12

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 12

Text in silver on a purple ground, framed by an acanthus border: 'Maiestas d[o]m[in]i celsu[m] sedet ecce tribunal'. Image taken from f. 12 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the ... More

Evangelist Matthew from BL Harley 2820, f. 14

Evangelist Matthew from BL Harley 2820, f. 14

Miniature of Matthew, quill in hand, seated at a lecturn. Image taken from f. 14 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 119v

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 119v

Text in silver on a purple ground, framed by an acanthus border. Image taken from f. 119v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 120v

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 120v

Text in silver on a purple ground framed by an acanthus border:'Initium s[an]c[t]i aevangelii s[e]c[un]d[u]m Lucam.' Image taken from f. 120v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and th... More

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 4v

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 4v

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 4v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 14v

Text in silver on a purple ground from BL Harley 2820, f. 14v

Text in silver on a purple ground, framed by an acanthus border with male portrait busts in four medallions: 'Initium s[an]c[t]i aevangelii s[e]c[un]d[u]m Matheu[m]. Image taken from f. 14v of Gospels (the 'Col... More

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 6

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 6

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 6 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 2v

Canon table from BL Harley 2820, f. 2v

Canon table with columns surmounted by foliate capitals. Image taken from f. 2v of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Evangelist Mark from BL Harley 2820, f. 78

Evangelist Mark from BL Harley 2820, f. 78

Miniature of Mark, quill in hand, seated at a lecturn. Image taken from f. 78 of Gospels (the 'Cologne Gospels') with prologue, argumentum, and the Capitulare evangelorum. Written in Latin.

Textile, 14th century

Textile, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Fragment of Textile Band

Fragment of Textile Band

Made in Cologne, Germany

Textile, 14th century

Textile, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Brocade Textile, 14th century

Brocade Textile, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Textile, 14th century

Textile, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Orphrey, 14th century

Orphrey, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Textile, 14th century

Textile, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Band, 14th century

Band, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Brocade Band, 14th century

Brocade Band, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Textile, 14th century

Textile, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Textile Band, 14th century

Textile Band, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Orphrey Band, 14th century

Orphrey Band, 14th century

Made in Cologne, Germany

Praetexta of an Antependium

Praetexta of an Antependium

Made in Cologne, Germany

Praetexta, 15th century
Section of Orphrey

Section of Orphrey

Made in Cologne, Germany

The Annunciation, Anonymous, German, 15th century

The Annunciation, Anonymous, German, 15th century

Anonymous, German, Cologne, 15th century

Saint John the Baptist Appearing Before Herod

Saint John the Baptist Appearing Before Herod

Augustin Braun (German, Cologne ca. 1570–1639 Cologne)

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