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Christine de Pizan - The Medieval Feminist

Christine de Pizan was an Italian-French late medieval author and a court author.Created by: PICRYLDated: 2017
Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 290
Christine de Pizan ( 1364 – c. 1430) was an Italian-French late medieval court writer for Louis of Orleans, Philip the Bold of Burgundy, and John the Fearless of Burgundy and the French royal court during the reign of Charles VI. She completed forty-one works during her 30-year career from 1399–1429, both poetry and prose, biographies and books containing practical advice for women.
Married in 1380 at the age of 15, she was widowed 10 years later. She needed to earn a living to support her mother, a niece and her two surviving children. She spent most of her life in Paris and then the abbey at Poissy, and wrote entirely in her adopted language, Middle French.
Supported and encouraged by important royal French and English patrons, she influenced 15th-century English poetry. Her success stems from a wide range of innovative writing and rhetorical techniques that critically challenged renowned writers such as Jean de Meun, author of the Romance of the Rose, which she criticized as immoral.
Certain scholars have argued that she should be seen as an early feminist who efficiently used language to convey that women could play an important role in society. This characterization has been challenged by other critics, who say that it is either an anachronistic use of the word or a misinterpretation of her writing and intentions.
217 Media in collectionpage 1 of 3
Woman reading from BL Harley 4431, f. 259v

Woman reading from BL Harley 4431, f. 259v

Miniature of a woman reading moral proverbs at the beginning of the 'Proverbes moraux'. Image taken from f. 259v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'L... more

Bacchus and his followers from BL Harley 4431, f. 106

Bacchus and his followers from BL Harley 4431, f. 106

Miniature of Bacchus and his followers drinking, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 106 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre de... more

Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 95

Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 95

Detail of a miniature of Christine de Pizan presenting her book to Louis of Orleans, at the beginning of 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 95 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), includ... more

Diana and Pallas from BL Harley 4431, f. 124

Diana and Pallas from BL Harley 4431, f. 124

Miniature of the goddess Diana and maidens hunting a stag; miniature of Arachne at her loom with Pallas, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 124 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), in... more

Bacchus and his followers from BL Harley 4431, f. 106

Bacchus and his followers from BL Harley 4431, f. 106

Detail of a miniature of Bacchus and his followers drinking, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 106 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat... more

Venus from BL Harley 4431, f. 100

Venus from BL Harley 4431, f. 100

Miniature of Venus presiding over a group of men and women, who are presenting their hearts to her, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 100 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), includi... more

Apollo killing Ganymede from BL Harley 4431, f. 119v

Apollo killing Ganymede from BL Harley 4431, f. 119v

Miniature of Apollo killing Ganymede by piercing his eye, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 119v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat d... more

Ino sowing boiled corn from BL Harley 4431, f. 140v

Ino sowing boiled corn from BL Harley 4431, f. 140v

Detail of a miniature of Ino ordering the sowing of boiled corn, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 140v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le ... more

Armies entering Troy from BL Harley 4431, f. 139v

Armies entering Troy from BL Harley 4431, f. 139v

Detail of a miniature of the Greek army entering Troy and destroying the city, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 139v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (f... more

Circe from BL Harley 4431, f. 140

Circe from BL Harley 4431, f. 140

Miniature of the sorceress Circe changing Ulysses and his companions into swine, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 140 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (... more

Queen from BL Harley 4431, f. 361

Queen from BL Harley 4431, f. 361

Detail of a miniature of the queens and ladies welcoming female saints into the Cité des Dames. Image taken from f. 361 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-... more

Woman before a man from BL Harley 4431, f. 58v

Woman before a man from BL Harley 4431, f. 58v

Miniature of a woman before a man seated on a throne, with two men seated behind her, in 'Le Débat du livre des ii amans'. Image taken from f. 58v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), inclu... more

Wheel of Fortune from BL Harley 4431, f. 129

Wheel of Fortune from BL Harley 4431, f. 129

Miniature of the Wheel of Fortune, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 129 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ii amans' (f... more

Pygmalion and Venus from BL Harley 4431, f. 106v

Pygmalion and Venus from BL Harley 4431, f. 106v

Detail of a miniature of Pygmalion kneeling before Venus, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 106v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat d... more

Mercury, Argus, and Io from BL Harley 4431, f. 109v

Mercury, Argus, and Io from BL Harley 4431, f. 109v

Detail of a miniature of Mercury playing pipes to put a many-eyed Argus to sleep, in order to steal Io, who has been transformed into a cow, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 109v of Various works (also ... more

Midas, Pan and Apollo from BL Harley 4431, f. 108

Midas, Pan and Apollo from BL Harley 4431, f. 108

Miniature of Midas judging the contest between Pan and Apollo, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Midas, with donkey's ears, stands gesturing at the bottom right, whilst Apollo, playing his lyre, and Pan, playing pipe, engag... more

Mercury from BL Harley 4431, f. 102

Mercury from BL Harley 4431, f. 102

Miniature of Mercury inspiring the speech of the learned, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. The celestial figure of Mercury is holding a flower as a symbol of eloquence, while a group of figures, below, is engaged in learne... more

Trojan Horse from BL Harley 4431, f. 139

Trojan Horse from BL Harley 4431, f. 139

Miniature of the gates of Troy being enlarged to permit the entrance of the Trojan horse, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 139 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent b... more

Trojan army from BL Harley 4431, f. 125

Trojan army from BL Harley 4431, f. 125

Detail of a miniature of the Trojan army inspecting the empty Greek ships as Telamon's army enters the undefended city of Troy, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 125 of Various works (also known as 'The ... more

Minerva and Pallas Athena from BL Harley 4431, f. 103

Minerva and Pallas Athena from BL Harley 4431, f. 103

Detail a miniature of Minerva, holding a sword, and Pallas Athena, holding a book, presiding over their followers, in 'L'Épître Othéa'.'. Image taken from f. 103 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the... more

Jousting from BL Harley 4431, f. 150

Jousting from BL Harley 4431, f. 150

Detail of a miniature of ladies watching knights jousting, in 'Le Duc des vrais amants'. Image taken from f. 150 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'L... more

Laomedon from BL Harley 4431, f. 112v

Laomedon from BL Harley 4431, f. 112v

Detail of a miniature of King Laomedon of Troy confronting the Hercules, Jason, and the Argonauts. Image taken from f. 112v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff... more

The Lover from BL Harley 4431, f. 154v

The Lover from BL Harley 4431, f. 154v

Miniature of the Lover in bed complaining to his companion, in 'Le Duc des vrais amants'. Image taken from f. 154v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), ... more

Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 4

Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 4

Detail of a miniature of Christine de Pizan in her study at the beginning of the 'Cent balades'. Image taken from f. 4 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-2... more

King Adrastus from BL Harley 4431, f. 116v

King Adrastus from BL Harley 4431, f. 116v

Miniature of Thydeus and Polinices in combat beneath the chamber of the sleeping King Adrastus of Argos, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 116v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), i... more

Juno from BL Harley 4431, f. 118

Juno from BL Harley 4431, f. 118

Miniature of Juno, as the goddess of wealth, presiding over an assembly of men counting money, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 118 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'C... more

Ulysses and the Cyclops from BL Harley 4431, f. 105

Ulysses and the Cyclops from BL Harley 4431, f. 105

Detail of a miniature of Ulysses blinding the Cyclops, Polyphemus, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 105 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le... more

Queen and ladies from BL Harley 4431, f. 323

Queen and ladies from BL Harley 4431, f. 323

Miniature of the queen and her ladies entering the Cite des Dames, in 'La Cité des dames'. Image taken from f. 323 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), ... more

Wedding of Peleus and Thetis from BL Harley 4431, f. 122v

Wedding of Peleus and Thetis from BL Harley 4431, f. 122v

Miniature of guests at the banquet to celebrate the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 122v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades'... more

Ceyx and Alcyone from BL Harley 4431, f. 131

Ceyx and Alcyone from BL Harley 4431, f. 131

Miniature of king Ceyx taking leave of his wife Alcyone as he prepares to set sail in a boat, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 131 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Ce... more

Apollo from BL Harley 4431, f. 117v

Apollo from BL Harley 4431, f. 117v

Detail of a miniature of Apollo shooting arrows at Corinus, after the white raven has reported her unfaithfulness, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 117v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the ... more

Midas, Pan and Apollo from BL Harley 4431, f. 108

Midas, Pan and Apollo from BL Harley 4431, f. 108

Miniature of Midas judging the contest between Pan and Apollo, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Midas, with donkey's ears, stands gesturing at the bottom right, whilst Apollo, playing his lyre, and Pan, playing pipe, engag... more

Actaeon from BL Harley 4431, f. 126

Actaeon from BL Harley 4431, f. 126

Miniature of Actaeon surprising Diana at her bath; he is turned into a stag as punishment, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 126 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent ... more

Calchas at Delphi from BL Harley 4431, f. 132

Calchas at Delphi from BL Harley 4431, f. 132

Detail of a miniature of Calchas being sent to Delphi by Priam, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 132 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Dé... more

Latona and the frogs from BL Harley 4431, f. 105v

Latona and the frogs from BL Harley 4431, f. 105v

Detail of a miniature of the goddess Latona turning peasants into frogs after they prevented her from drinking from a stream, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 105v of Various works (also known as 'The B... more

Christine and the Sibyl from BL Harley 4431, f. 189v

Christine and the Sibyl from BL Harley 4431, f. 189v

Detail of a miniature of Christine and the Sibyl standing in a sphere of the cosmos, with the moon, sun and stars surrounding, in 'Le chemin de long estude'. Image taken from f. 189v of Various works (also kno... more

Venus from BL Harley 4431, f. 100

Venus from BL Harley 4431, f. 100

Detail of a miniature of Venus presiding over a group of men and women, who are presenting their hearts to her, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 100 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Quee... more

Lady from BL Harley 4431, f. 153

Lady from BL Harley 4431, f. 153

Detail of a miniature of a lady seated in a litter borne by two white horses, in the centre, with male attendants, three mounted, one on foot, in 'Le Duc des vrais amants'. Image taken from f. 153 of Various wo... more

Minerva and Pallas Athena from BL Harley 4431, f. 103

Minerva and Pallas Athena from BL Harley 4431, f. 103

Miniature of Minerva, holding a sword, and Pallas Athena, holding a book, presiding over their followers, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 103 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), i... more

Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 4

Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 4

Detail of a miniature of Christine de Pizan in her study at the beginning of the 'Cent balades'. Image taken from f. 4 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-2... more

Apollo and Phoebe from BL Harley 4431, f. 101

Apollo and Phoebe from BL Harley 4431, f. 101

Miniature of Apollo, playing his harp, presiding over his followers; miniature of Phoebe with a bow and arrow, presiding over her followers, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 101 of Various works (also k... more

Lover and lady from BL Harley 4431, f. 376

Lover and lady from BL Harley 4431, f. 376

Miniature of the lover telling of his love to his lady in a garden. Image taken from f. 376 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ... more

Pegasus from BL Harley 4431, f. 183

Pegasus from BL Harley 4431, f. 183

Detail of a miniature of Pegasus flying over the Nine Muses, in the Castalian fountain on Mount Parnassus, while Christine and the Sibyl look on, in 'Le chemin de long estude'. Image taken from f. 183 of Vario... more

Christine de Pisan from BL Harley 4431, f. 3

Christine de Pisan from BL Harley 4431, f. 3

Detail of a presentation miniature with Christine de Pisan presenting her book to queen Isabeau of Bavaria. Image taken from f. 3 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balade... more

Cassandra from BL Harley 4431, f. 110v

Cassandra from BL Harley 4431, f. 110v

Miniature of Cassandra kneeling in prayer before an altar in a temple, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 110v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21)... more

Saturn from BL Harley 4431, f. 100v

Saturn from BL Harley 4431, f. 100v

Detail of a miniature of Saturn, holding a sickle, presiding over a group of men, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 100v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades'... more

Antenor from BL Harley 4431, f. 138v

Antenor from BL Harley 4431, f. 138v

Detail of a miniature of Antenor betraying the city of Troy to the Greeks, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 138v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4... more

Priam and Helen from BL Harley 4431, f. 115

Priam and Helen from BL Harley 4431, f. 115

Detail of a miniature of a deputation of Greek messengers demanding the return of Helen from King Priam, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 115 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), in... more

Woman reading from BL Harley 4431, f. 259v

Woman reading from BL Harley 4431, f. 259v

Detail of a miniature of a woman reading moral proverbs at the beginning of the 'Proverbes moraux'. Image taken from f. 259v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (f... more

King Adrastus from BL Harley 4431, f. 116v

King Adrastus from BL Harley 4431, f. 116v

Detail of a miniature of Thydeus and Polinices in combat beneath the chamber of the sleeping King Adrastus of Argos, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 116v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of th... more

Judgement of Paris from BL Harley 4431, f. 128v

Judgement of Paris from BL Harley 4431, f. 128v

Detail of a miniature of the Judgement of Paris, between Athena, Juno and Venus, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 128v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' ... more

Andromeda and Perseus from BL Harley 4431, f. 98v

Andromeda and Perseus from BL Harley 4431, f. 98v

Miniature of Andromeda being rescued from a monster by Perseus, riding on Pegasus, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 98v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades'... more

Man kneeling before a woman from BL Harley 4431, f. 56v

Man kneeling before a woman from BL Harley 4431, f. 56v

Detail of a miniature of a man kneeling before a woman sitting on a red velvet bed. Image taken from f. 56v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Déb... more

Queen and attendant from BL Harley 4431, f. 290

Queen and attendant from BL Harley 4431, f. 290

Detail of a the right-hand portion of the miniature, depicting a queen and her attendant building the Cité des dames at the beginning of this text. Image taken from f. 290 of Various works (also known as 'The B... more

Pegasus from BL Harley 4431, f. 183

Pegasus from BL Harley 4431, f. 183

Miniature of Pegasus flying over the Nine Muses, in the Castalian fountain on Mount Parnassus, while Christine and the Sibyl look on, in 'Le chemin de long estude'. Image taken from f. 183 of Various works (al... more

Ladies and gentlemen riding from BL Harley 4431, f. 81

Ladies and gentlemen riding from BL Harley 4431, f. 81

Detail of a miniature of ladies and gentlemen riding together. Image taken from f. 81 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ii ama... more

Cadmus and Io from BL Harley 4431, f. 109

Cadmus and Io from BL Harley 4431, f. 109

Miniature of the construction of Thebes and Cadmus killing the dragon at Ares' spring, with builders at work in the background; miniature of a scriptorium at work under the direction of Io, in 'L'Épître Othéa'.... more

Minerva from BL Harley 4431, f. 102v

Minerva from BL Harley 4431, f. 102v

Detail of a miniature of Minerva presenting armour to her followers, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 102v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), ... more

Miniature from BL Harley 4431, f. 196v

Miniature from BL Harley 4431, f. 196v

Detail of a miniature, in 'Le Livre du chemin de long estude'. Image taken from f. 196v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ii a... more

Ulysses and the Cyclops from BL Harley 4431, f. 105

Ulysses and the Cyclops from BL Harley 4431, f. 105

Miniature of Ulysses blinding the Cyclops, Polyphemus, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 105 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du li... more

Lady from BL Harley 4431, f. 153

Lady from BL Harley 4431, f. 153

Miniature of a lady seated in a litter borne by two white horses, in the centre, with male attendants, three mounted, one on foot, in 'Le Duc des vrais amants'. Image taken from f. 153 of Various works (also kn... more

King Memnon from BL Harley 4431, f. 112

King Memnon from BL Harley 4431, f. 112

Miniature of King Memnon, a cousin of Hector, being called to arms, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 112 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'L... more

Hercules battling two lions from BL Harley 4431, f. 97

Hercules battling two lions from BL Harley 4431, f. 97

Miniature of Hercules battling against two lions, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 97 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre de... more

Helenus from BL Harley 4431, f. 130

Helenus from BL Harley 4431, f. 130

Miniature of Helenus, brother of Hector, advising Paris in an assembly, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 130 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21)... more

Ceres sowing corn from BL Harley 4431, f. 107v

Ceres sowing corn from BL Harley 4431, f. 107v

Detail of a miniature of Ceres sowing corn, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 107v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ii... more

Morpheus from BL Harley 4431, f. 130v

Morpheus from BL Harley 4431, f. 130v

Detail of a miniature of Morpheus bringing sleep to a man in a bed, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 130v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), '... more

Phoebe from BL Harley 4431, f. 101

Phoebe from BL Harley 4431, f. 101

Detail of a miniature of Phoebe with a bow and arrow, presiding over her followers, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 101 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades... more

Ulysses playing chess from BL Harley 4431, f. 133

Ulysses playing chess from BL Harley 4431, f. 133

Miniature of Ulysses playing chess in his tent during the Trojan War, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 133 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), ... more

Queen Pasiphae from BL Harley 4431, f. 116

Queen Pasiphae from BL Harley 4431, f. 116

Miniature of queen Pasiphae embracing the bull, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 116 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des... more

Apollo from BL Harley 4431, f. 117v

Apollo from BL Harley 4431, f. 117v

Miniature of Apollo shooting arrows at Corinus, after the white raven has reported her unfaithfulness, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 117v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), inc... more

Man kneeling before two women from BL Harley 4431, f. 48

Man kneeling before two women from BL Harley 4431, f. 48

Detail of a miniature of a man in a red cloak kneeling before two women. Image taken from f. 48 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre ... more

Hercules, Theseus and Pirithous from BL Harley 4431, f. 108v

Hercules, Theseus and Pirithous from BL Harley 4431, f. 108v

Miniature of Hercules slaying Cerberus, and Theseus and Pirithous battling demons, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 108v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades... more

Ulysses discovering Achilles from BL Harley 4431, f. 127v

Ulysses discovering Achilles from BL Harley 4431, f. 127v

Miniature of Ulysses discovering Achilles, who is hiding among the daughters of Lycomedes on Scyros; Ulysses casts weapons before the women, which Achilles snatches up, betraying his identity, in 'L'Épître Othé... more

Woman before a man from BL Harley 4431, f. 58v

Woman before a man from BL Harley 4431, f. 58v

Detail of a miniature of a woman before a man seated on a throne, with two men seated behind her, in 'Le Débat du livre des ii amans'. Image taken from f. 58v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Qu... more

Cadmus from BL Harley 4431, f. 109

Cadmus from BL Harley 4431, f. 109

Detail of a miniature of the construction of Thebes and Cadmus killing the dragon at Ares' spring, in 'L'Épître Othéa'; in the background, builders are at work. Image taken from f. 109 of Various works (also kn... more

Ulysses playing chess from BL Harley 4431, f. 133

Ulysses playing chess from BL Harley 4431, f. 133

Detail of a miniature of Ulysses playing chess in his tent during the Trojan War, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 133 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' ... more

Hector and Priam from BL Harley 4431, f. 136

Hector and Priam from BL Harley 4431, f. 136

Detail of a miniature of Hector bidding farewell to Priam, who implores him not to fight, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 136 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent b... more

Duke of True Love hunting from BL Harley 4431, f. 144

Duke of True Love hunting from BL Harley 4431, f. 144

Detail of a miniature of the Duke of True Love hunting with dogs and mounted companions, in 'Le Duc des vrais amants'. Image taken from f. 144 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including... more

Othea from BL Harley 4431, f. 95v

Othea from BL Harley 4431, f. 95v

Detail of a miniature of the goddess Othea presenting her epistle to Hector of Troy, at the beginning of 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 95v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), inclu... more

Hermaphroditus from BL Harley 4431, f. 132v

Hermaphroditus from BL Harley 4431, f. 132v

Detail of a miniature of Hermaphroditus and the nymph Salmacis bathing in a lake, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 132v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades'... more

Christ as the Man of Sorrows from BL Harley 4431, f. 257

Christ as the Man of Sorrows from BL Harley 4431, f. 257

Miniature of Christ as the Man of Sorrows at the beginning of a prayer to Christ. Image taken from f. 257 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat... more

Ulysses discovering Achilles from BL Harley 4431, f. 127v

Ulysses discovering Achilles from BL Harley 4431, f. 127v

Detail of a miniature of Ulysses discovering Achilles, who is hiding among the daughters of Lycomedes on Scyros; Ulysses casts weapons before the women, which Achilles snatches up, betraying his identity, in 'L... more

Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 178

Christine de Pizan from BL Harley 4431, f. 178

Miniature of Christine de Pizan presenting her book to Charles VI, seated on the left, with courtiers, at the beginning of 'Le Livre du chemin de long estude'. Image taken from f. 178 of Various works (also kno... more

Ceyx and Alcyone from BL Harley 4431, f. 131

Ceyx and Alcyone from BL Harley 4431, f. 131

Detail of a miniature of king Ceyx taking leave of his wife Alcyone as he prepares to set sail in a boat, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 131 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), i... more

Mercury and Aglauros from BL Harley 4431, f. 104v

Mercury and Aglauros from BL Harley 4431, f. 104v

Detail of a miniature of Aglauros refusing Mercury, disguised as a traveller, admittance to her sister Herse, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 104v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen... more

Bellorophon from BL Harley 4431, f. 111v

Bellorophon from BL Harley 4431, f. 111v

Detail of a miniature of Bellorophon and his stepmother, the queen, with threatening lions above, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 111v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), includin... more

Aesculapius and Circe from BL Harley 4431, f. 113v

Aesculapius and Circe from BL Harley 4431, f. 113v

Miniature of the physician Aesculapius making a diagnosis, while Circe spears frogs in a stream below, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 113v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), inc... more

Miniature from BL Harley 4431, f. 218v

Miniature from BL Harley 4431, f. 218v

Detail of a miniature in 'Le chemin de long estude'. Image taken from f. 218v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ii amans' (ff.... more

God of Love from BL Harley 4431, f. 51

God of Love from BL Harley 4431, f. 51

Detail of a miniature of the God of Love presenting a 'royal letter' to a messenger. Image taken from f. 51 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Déb... more

Christine's vision from BL Harley 4431, f. 192v

Christine's vision from BL Harley 4431, f. 192v

Detail of a miniature of Christine's vision in heavens, in 'Le chemin de long estude'. Image taken from f. 192v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le... more

Man kneeling before two women from BL Harley 4431, f. 48

Man kneeling before two women from BL Harley 4431, f. 48

Miniature of a man in a red cloak kneeling before two women. Image taken from f. 48 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ii amans... more

Perseus from BL Harley 4431, f. 120v

Perseus from BL Harley 4431, f. 120v

Miniature of Perseus battling the Gorgon, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 120v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ii a... more

Death of Laomedon from BL Harley 4431, f. 123

Death of Laomedon from BL Harley 4431, f. 123

Miniature of Greek soldiers killing king Laomedon, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 123 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre ... more

Morpheus from BL Harley 4431, f. 130v

Morpheus from BL Harley 4431, f. 130v

Miniature of Morpheus bringing sleep to a man in a bed, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 130v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du ... more

The Lover from BL Harley 4431, f. 154v

The Lover from BL Harley 4431, f. 154v

Detail of a miniature of the Lover in bed complaining to his companion, in 'Le Duc des vrais amants'. Image taken from f. 154v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' ... more

Thamyris from BL Harley 4431, f. 121v

Thamyris from BL Harley 4431, f. 121v

Detail of a miniature of the head of king Cyrus being brought before Thamyris, queen of the Amazons, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 121v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), inclu... more

Adonis killed by a wild boar from BL Harley 4431, f. 124v

Adonis killed by a wild boar from BL Harley 4431, f. 124v

Detail of a miniature of Adonis being killed by a wild boar, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 124v of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Déba... more

Vision of the Tiburtine Sybil from BL Harley 4431, f. 141

Vision of the Tiburtine Sybil from BL Harley 4431, f. 141

Miniature of the Tiburtine Sybil revealing to Caesar Augustus a vision of the Virgin and Child, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 141 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including ... more

Cupid from BL Harley 4431, f. 117

Cupid from BL Harley 4431, f. 117

Miniature of Cupid and a young knight, in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Image taken from f. 117 of Various works (also known as 'The Book of the Queen'), including 'Cent balades' (ff. 4-21), 'Le Débat du livre des ii amans... more

Hippomenes and Atalante from BL Harley 4431, f. 128

Hippomenes and Atalante from BL Harley 4431, f. 128

Detail of a miniature of Hippomenes racing against Atalante in 'L'Épître Othéa'. Hippomenes, to the left, holding a golden apple, races against Atalante who stoops to pick up one of the golden apples. Image tak... more