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Prussia

The most powerful German State.Created by: PICRYLDated: 1860
[The cathedral and museum, Lubeck, Germany]
In 1225, the Teutonic Knights, a military order of crusading knights, headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre transferred their operations to the Baltic Sea where Order engaged in numerous armed conflicts until Order's lands came into the hands of a branch of the Hohenzollern family, who already ruled the Brandenburg.

The resulting state, known as Brandenburg-Prussia, commonly known as "Prussia", consisted of geographically disconnected territories in Prussia, Brandenburg, and the Rhineland. During the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), armies repeatedly marched across the territories so Hohenzollerns had to build a powerful military to protect disconnected lands.

"Prussia" developed one of the most powerful armies in Europe. Mirabeau said: "Prussia, is not a state with an army, but an army with a state." More than 20,000 Protestant refugees from Salzburg settled in thinly populated eastern Prussia.

Prussia engaged in wars with Poland, Lithuania, numerous German States, Habsburg Austria, France, and Russia proving Prussia's status as one of the great powers of Europe. By 1813, Prussia could mobilize almost 300,000 soldiers. Prussian troops contributed crucially in the Battle of Waterloo - the final victory over Napoleon. Prussia invited the immigration of Protestant refugees (especially Huguenots).

For protestants, Prussia was a safe haven in much the same way that the United States welcomed immigrants seeking freedom in the 19th century. Frederick the Great, the first "King of Prussia" introduced a general civil code, abolished torture and established the principle that the Crown would not interfere in matters of justice. He promoted an advanced secondary education which prepares the brightest pupils for university studies. The Prussian education system was emulated in various countries, including the United States.

The first half of the 19th century saw a prolonged struggle between those who wanted a united Germany and others who wanted to maintain Germany as a patchwork of independent, monarchical states with Prussia and Austria competing for influence. In 1862 Prussian King Wilhelm I appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister. Bismarck guided Prussia through a series of wars resulting in a formation of the North German Confederation that united all German-speaking peoples, excluding Austria, which remained connected to non-German territories. On 18 January 1871, William was proclaimed "German Emperor".

World War I ended Prussia’s supremacy. The abolition of the political power of the aristocracy transformed Prussia into a region strongly dominated by the left-wing of the political spectrum. Prussia lost territories and became a Land under the Weimar Republic. After the rise to power of Adolf Hitler in 1933, the Prussian constitution was set aside and the legislature abolished.

World War II led to the abolition of Prussia with most the land ceded over to Poland. The German population was expelled and fled to the Western occupation zones. The number of casualties is estimated at 2 to 4 million, including those who fled during the last months of the war. 25 February 1947, Prussia was officially proclaimed to be dissolved.
1229
1229
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1983
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1983
2,787 Media in collectionpage 1 of 28
[Holstengate, Lubeck, Germany]

[Holstengate, Lubeck, Germany]

Title from the Detroit Publishing Co., catalogue J foreign section. Detroit, Mich. : Detroit Photographic Company, 1905. Print no. "1879". Forms part of: Views of Germany in the Photochrom print collection.

Copy of a Panel with Two Dolphins Facing a Vessel at Center

Copy of a Panel with Two Dolphins Facing a Vessel at Center

Ornamental design with vase at center, flanked by two grotesque dolphins, facing inwards. after Jacob Binck (German, Cologne 1494/1500–1569 Kaliningrad (Königsberg))

Vertical Panel with a Half-Length Female with Leaves as Arms

Vertical Panel with a Half-Length Female with Leaves as Arms

Ornament panel with half-length female figure wearing a crown with wing-like leaves instead of arms. Jacob Binck (German, Cologne 1494/1500–1569 Kaliningrad (Königsberg))

Vertical Panel with Cupid Holding the End of a Plant Sprouting Tendrils

Vertical Panel with Cupid Holding the End of a Plant Sprouting Tendril...

Ornamental design with a cupid facing right, holding the end of scrolling vines. Jacob Binck (German, Cologne 1494/1500–1569 Kaliningrad (Königsberg))

Albrecht, Markgraf von Brandenburg Herzog von Preußen

Albrecht, Markgraf von Brandenburg Herzog von Preußen

Verleger: Cock, Hieronymus Stecher: Heyden, Pieter van der (1530)

Tankard

Tankard

See 17.190.545 for a similar amber tankard.

Cup

Cup

Probably by Jakob Heise (German, active Königsberg 1654–63)

Johann II. Kasimir, König von Polen

Johann II. Kasimir, König von Polen

Stecher: Hondius, Willem faktischer Entstehungsort: Gdańsk

Aigendliche delineation welcher Gestalt die Schwedische den Weixel tam dvrch stochen vnd den ganzen Dantziger Werder vberschwimbt samt der ganzen Sitvation mid vmb ligenden Örter

Aigendliche delineation welcher Gestalt die Schwedische den Weixel tam...

Print shows map of the Vistula River estuary in Poland and the river as it branches into two streams before emptying into the Ost See [Baltic]. Breaks in the dike along the river are depicted as is the floodpla... more

Portrait of a Man

Portrait of a Man

David Loggan (British, Gdansk 1634–1692 London)

Hartknoch, Christoph

Hartknoch, Christoph

Verleger: Hallervord, Martin (1646) Stecher: Kraus, Johann Ulrich Verlagsort: Königsberg

Hartknoch, Christoph

Hartknoch, Christoph

Verleger: Hallervord, Martin (1646) Stecher: Boecklin, Johann Christoph Verlagsort: Königsberg

Botsack, Johannes

Botsack, Johannes

Verleger: Hallervord, Martin (1646) Verlagsort: Königsberg

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Stecher: Blesendorf, Samuel (1633)

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Stecher: Blesendorf, Samuel (1633)

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Stecher: Wolfgang, Johann Georg

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Stecher: Wolfgang, Johann Georg

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Stecher: Wolfgang, Johann Georg

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Maler: Wentzel, Johann Friedrich (der Ältere) Stecher: Desrochers, Etienne Verlag: Fritsch&Böhm Verlagsort: Rotterdam

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Maler: Wentzel, Johann Friedrich (der Ältere) Stecher: Desrochers, Etienne Verlag: Fritsch&Böhm Verlagsort: Rotterdam

Friedrich Wilhelm I., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm I., König von Preußen

Stecher: König, Anton Balthasar faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

Friedrich II., König von Preussen
Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Friedrich I., König von Preußen

Zeichner: Picart, Bernard Stecher: Picart, Bernard

Lobwasser, Ambrosius

Lobwasser, Ambrosius

Verleger: Eckart, Christoph Gottfried Verlagsort: Königsberg

August Wilhelm, Prinz von Preussen

August Wilhelm, Prinz von Preussen

Stecher: Schleuen, Johann David (1775) faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Stecher: Busch, Georg Paul faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

Ferdinand, Prinz von Preußen

Ferdinand, Prinz von Preußen

Stecher: Bernigeroth, Johann Martin

August Wilhelm, Prinz von Preussen

August Wilhelm, Prinz von Preussen

Stecher: Sysang, Johann Christoph

Snuffbox with portrait of Frederick the Great (1712–1786), King of Prussia
Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Schmidt, Georg Friedrich faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

August Wilhelm, Prinz von Preussen

August Wilhelm, Prinz von Preussen

Stecher: Fritzsch, Johann Christian Gottfried

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Coentgen, Heinrich Hugo faktischer Entstehungsort: Mainz

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Bernigeroth, Johann Martin faktischer Entstehungsort: Leipzig

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Radierer: Gericke, Johann Ernst faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Verleger: Will, Johann Martin Stecher: Wolfgang, Gustav Andreas faktischer Entstehungsort: Augsburg

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Wolfgang, Gustav Andreas faktischer Entstehungsort: Augsburg

Ferdinand, Prinz von Preußen

Ferdinand, Prinz von Preußen

Drucker: Leopold, Johann Christian Schabkünstler: Haid, Johann Philipp faktischer Entstehungsort: Augsburg

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Back, Jakob Conrad faktischer Entstehungsort: Frankfurt (Main)

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Stecher: Schmidt, Georg Friedrich faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Stecher: Schmidt, Georg Friedrich faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Stecher: Berger, Daniel (1744) Verleger: Reclam, Frédéric Verlagsort: Berlin

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Radierer: Berger, Daniel (1744) faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Entwerfer: Monogrammist I H E Zeichner: Moreau, Jean Michel Stecher: Tardieu, Alexandre

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Stecher: Berger, Daniel (1744)

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Stecher: Bause, Johann Friedrich Verleger: Bause, Johann Friedrich Verlagsort: Leipzig

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Radierer: Adam, Jakob Verlag: Artaria und Compagnie<Wien> faktischer Entstehungsort: Wien Verlagsort: Wien

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Radierer: Berger, Daniel (1744)

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Langlois, Pierre Gabriel

Sketch of Politiks in Europe, Birthday of the King of Prussia

Sketch of Politiks in Europe, Birthday of the King of Prussia

Thomas Rowlandson (British, London 1757–1827 London)

Friedrich der grosse könig von Preussen &c. Frédéric le grand roi de Prusse &c / / L. Wolf del. ; Meno Haas Reg. Acad. Berol. Socius. sculps.

Friedrich der grosse könig von Preussen &c. Frédéric le grand roi de P...

Print showing Frederick II, King of Prussia, on horseback, facing left. Title from item.

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Bause, Johann Friedrich faktischer Entstehungsort: Leipzig

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Bause, Johann Friedrich faktischer Entstehungsort: Leipzig

Friedrich II., König von Preussen
Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Radierer: Berger, Daniel (1744) Zeichner: Frisch, Johann Christoph

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Berger, Daniel (1744)

Friedrich II., König von Preussen
Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Heinrich, Prinz von Preußen

Zeichner: Vinsac, Claude Domin. Radierer: Vinsac, Claude Domin. Verleger: Vinsac, Claude Domin. Verleger: Joly, ? Verlagsort: Paris

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Radierer: Karcher, Anton (1760)

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Radierer: Karcher, Anton (1760)

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Radierer: Karcher, Anton (1760)

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm II., König von Preußen

Stecher: Berger, Daniel (1744)

L'enjambee imperiale

L'enjambee imperiale

Print shows Catherine II, Empress of Russia, bare-breasted, holding a scepter and sphere, taking a large step from a piece of land on the right labeled "Russie" to a crescent moon atop a steeple or minaret labe... more

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Friedrich II., König von Preussen

Stecher: Kohl, Clemens (1754) faktischer Entstehungsort: Wien

Apotheosis of Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Prussia (b. 1744, r. 1786–97)

Apotheosis of Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Prussia (b. 1744, r. 1786–...

The wax dated 1794 was probably executed while Rauschner was in Germany. John Christian Rauschner (German, Frankfurt 1760–after 1812)

Friedrich Wilhelm III., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm III., König von Preußen

Radierer: Meyer, Friedrich Wilhelm (1770) Zeichner: Lowe, Johann Michael Siegfried

Friedrich Wilhelm III., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm III., König von Preußen

Radierer: Haas, Meno Zeichner: Hornemann, Christian Zeichner: Ploetz, Henrik faktischer Entstehungsort: Berlin

Friedrich Wilhelm III., König von Preußen

Friedrich Wilhelm III., König von Preußen

Radierer: Haas, Meno Auftraggeber: Schropp, Johann Chrysostomus Verlag: Simon Schropp und Comp.<Berlin> Verlagsort: Berlin

Dees Nederlandsche Koe, altoos door Waereld-grooten ...

Dees Nederlandsche Koe, altoos door Waereld-grooten ...

Dutch political cartoon about the partitioning of the Netherlands shows the shorning and dismembering of the "Nederlandsche" cow. The "Neêrlands" lion, an enraged Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland (with sword dr... more

The Annexation of Erfurth to Prussia, 1803

The Annexation of Erfurth to Prussia, 1803

Medalist: probably Daniel Friedrich Loos (German, Altenburg 1735–1819 October)