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America's Child Laborers

Kids who spent their childhood working at factories, post offices, textile mills and other places in the beginning of the 20th century.Created by: PICRYL - Public Domain Media Search EngineDated: 1906
From the beginning of industrialization in the United States, factory owners often hired young workers. They were working with their parents at textile mills, helping fix machinery at factories and reaching areas too small for an adult to work. For many families child labor was a way to keep hand to mouth.
In 1904, the first organization dedicated to the regulation of a child labor appeared. The National Child Labor Committee published tons of information about working conditions and contributed to a legislature of state-level laws on child labor. These laws described limitations for the age of children and imposed the system of compulsory education so that government could keep children at schools far away from the paid labor market until 12, 14 or 16 years.
The collection includes photographs from the Library of Congress that were made in the period from 1906 to 1942.

As the United States industrialized, factory owners hired young workers for a variety of tasks. Especially in textile mills, children were often hired together with their parents. Children had a special disposition to working in factories as their small statures were useful to fixing machinery and navigating the small areas that fully grown adults could not. Many families in mill towns depended on the children's labor to make enough money for necessities.

The National Child Labor Committee, an organization dedicated to the abolition of all child labor, was formed in 1904. By publishing information on the lives and working conditions of young workers, it helped to mobilize popular support for state-level child labor laws. These laws were often paired with compulsory education laws which were designed to keep children in school and out of the paid labor market until a specified age (usually 12, 14, or 16 years.)
In 1916, the NCLC and the National Consumers League successfully pressured the US Congress to pass the Keating–Owen Act, which was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. It was the first federal child labor law. However, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the law two years later in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918), declaring that the law violated the Commerce Clause by regulating intrastate commerce. In 1924, Congress attempted to pass a constitutional amendment that would authorize a national child labor law. This measure was blocked, and the bill was eventually dropped.
It took the Great Depression to end child labor nationwide; adults had become so desperate for jobs that they would work for the same wage as children. In 1938, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor Standards Act, which, among other things, placed limits on many forms of child labor. However, The 1938 labor law giving protections to working children excludes agriculture. As a result, approximately 500,000 children pick almost a quarter of the food currently produced in the United States.
671 Media in collectionpage 1 of 7
1 A.M. Sunday, February 23, 1908. John Newman, 332 East 19th Street. Sells Sunday until 3 A.M. Said was 16 years old; is probably 13. Does not go to school. Photo taken at 22nd St. & 3rd Avenue. Witness F. McMurry.  Location: New York, New York (State)

1 A.M. Sunday, February 23, 1908. John Newman, 332 East 19th Street. S...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller boy) "Don't know how old I am." Been in mill 2 years. Runs 3 sides Albert Bartlett (barefoot) Looked 8 years old. In mill 2 years--Beginning to spin. Runs 2-1/2 sides = 25 cents a day. Bad conditions. Saturday, Dec. 5, 08.  Location: Dillon, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

In neighborhood of Maple Mill, Dillon, S.C. Lawrence Faircloth (taller...

Picryl description: Public domain image of children, kids, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

#37. (See also #36 & #38.) Harry McShane. Cincinnati. See account of accident, attached to photo #36. Aug., 1908.  Location: Cincinnati, Ohio. / Photo by [...]

#37. (See also #36 & #38.) Harry McShane. Cincinnati. See account of a...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

The galley / Arthur Young. - Political cartoon, public domain image

The galley / Arthur Young. - Political cartoon, public domain image

Illustration shows the interior of a galley where rows of children are manning the oars; the overseer, a large man, is labeled "Greed". Hanging on the wall is a notice that states "Child-labor Investigators, Se... More

[Donald Mallick, ("Happy"), 203 King Street. 9 years of age, selling newspapers 5 years. Average earnings 35 cents a week. Sells from choice. Father, rivet driver, $20 weekly. "Happy" is well known character in town. When first interviewed gave story of sleeping in broken buildings and lots at night. Found out in streets at 11 P.M. at night pitching pennies and working "last paper" scheme. Flips cars and has sister who is 8 years of age who begs and sells papers. Boy very imaginative, and when last seen had a rusty 5 inch knife which he said he found and was playing with same in gutter. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Wilmington, Del. May, 1910.]  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

[Donald Mallick, ("Happy"), 203 King Street. 9 years of age, selling n...

Picryl description: Public domain portrait of a child, free to use, no copyright restrictions image.

3 year old girl and 2 boys hulling berries at Johnson's Canning Camp, Seaford, Del.  Location: Seaford, Delaware.

3 year old girl and 2 boys hulling berries at Johnson's Canning Camp, ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Garment workers. Upper East Side, N.Y.C. Location: New York, New York (State)

Garment workers. Upper East Side, N.Y.C. Location: New York, New York ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, economic conditions, children workers, exploitation, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Girl and boys selling papers. Edward F. Brown, Investigator.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Girl and boys selling papers. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Location...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Every one of these children works in Hosiery Mills. The smallest girl in the middle said, "I ravels and picks up." Small boy in another mill said, " Over in Mill they work em so little they have to stand em up on boxes to reach." These children were well dressed for workers.  Location: Cleveland, Tennessee.

Every one of these children works in Hosiery Mills. The smallest girl ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Carrying tags. A little tot with a heavy load.  Location: Roxbury, Massachusetts.

Carrying tags. A little tot with a heavy load. Location: Roxbury, Mas...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

8:30 A.M., Nov. 12, 1912. Two young girls, Murry and Westover, carrying home sacks full of hose-supporters for home work, from American Narrow Fabric Co., Worcester, Massachusetts. Loads are heavy and distances long. They hurry so they won't be late to school. They have to stop frequently to rest. (See Report of F. A. Smith, also photos of Westover and Murry families (interiors)).  Location: Worcester, Massachusettsachusetts.

8:30 A.M., Nov. 12, 1912. Two young girls, Murry and Westover, carryin...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

National Child Labor Committee. #3026 Johnnie Beam, one of the young workers in the Pelzer Mfg. Co., S.C. Been working here over a year. Appears to be under 12 years.  Location: [Pelzer], South Carolina.

National Child Labor Committee. #3026 Johnnie Beam, one of the young w...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Dangerous work. Charlie McBride (said twelve years old). This twelve year old boy has a steady job with the Miller & Vidor Lumber Company. He takes slabs out of the chute which has a moving endless chain to carry the wood up the chute. He passes the slabs onto to [sic] other boy who saws them on an unguarded circular saw. Charlie runs the saw himself whenever he gets the chance. He is exposed not only to the above dangers, but to the weather. No roof even. Has been here for some months. "Get four bits a day." (fifty cents) Works ten hours. This was the only mill that I found in Beaumont that employed boys - likely because they are located some distance out of town.  Location: Beaumont, Texas.

Dangerous work. Charlie McBride (said twelve years old). This twelve y...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Marie Vancanvenberg, 15 years old. Working on corsets for Madam Claff, 420 Boylston Street.  Location: Boston, Massachusetts / Lewis W. Hine.

Marie Vancanvenberg, 15 years old. Working on corsets for Madam Claff,...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Stinging milk tags (See 4916).  Location: [Newark], New Jersey.

Stinging milk tags (See 4916). Location: [Newark], New Jersey.

Picryl description: Public domain image of children, kids, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Child labor, cranberry bog, Burlington County, New Jersey

Child labor, cranberry bog, Burlington County, New Jersey

Picryl description: Public domain image of a quarry, mine, excavation, or mining site, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Sanitary Ice Cream Cone Co., 116 S. Dewey St. (Cisar, Manager). John Myers, 14 years old, who is in Grade 6 in Franklin School works after school and Saturday. He has been there 7 months. Can bake cones as well as pack them. For a month in the Fall, after school started, he went to school and worked from 4 p.m. to midnight. Expects to do it again soon. Gets $4 a week for part time and $8 a week when working 8 hours a day.  Location: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma / Lewis W. Hine.

Sanitary Ice Cream Cone Co., 116 S. Dewey St. (Cisar, Manager). John M...

Public domain image of an industrial building, factory, structure, works, 19th-20th century industrial revolution, free to use, no copyright restrictions - Picryl description

Going home to lunch! Two boys from Singer Mfg. Co., Small boy -- Charles Bailey, 316 Scholum St., Is he Fourteen years old?.  Location: South Bend, Indiana.

Going home to lunch! Two boys from Singer Mfg. Co., Small boy -- Charl...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

[Protest against child labor in a labor parade]

[Protest against child labor in a labor parade]

Photograph shows half-length portrait of two girls wearing banners with slogan "ABOLISH CH[ILD] SLAVERY!!" in English and Yiddish, one carrying American flag; spectators stand nearby. Probably taken during May ... More

W. B. Corkey Co. Going home 5:30 P.M. Lots of boys here. Girls go out at other entrance. Hammond, Ind.  Location: Hammond, Indiana.

W. B. Corkey Co. Going home 5:30 P.M. Lots of boys here. Girls go out ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

3:30 P.M. Picking nuts in dirty basement. The dirtiest imaginable children were pawing over the nuts, eating lunch on the table, etc. Mother had a cold, blew her nose frequently (without washing hands) and the dirty handkerchief reposed comfortably on the table and close to the nuts and nut meats. The father picks now. "No work to do at any business." (Has a cobbler's shop in the room.) They said the children didn't pick near. (Probably a temporary respite.) See 2685.  Location: [New York, New York (State)].

3:30 P.M. Picking nuts in dirty basement. The dirtiest imaginable chil...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, economic conditions, children workers, exploitation, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

All these are workers in the Cherokee Hosiery Mill, Rome, Ga. Noon, Apr. 10, 1913. The youngest are turners and loopers. Other Hosiery Mills around here employ children of 8 and 9 years. Some of these appear to be as young.  Location: Rome, Georgia.

All these are workers in the Cherokee Hosiery Mill, Rome, Ga. Noon, Ap...

Public domain historical photo, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Myrtle. A typical sight. Family and neighbors working on tags on door steps of Mrs. ---. See report.  Location: [Roxbury], Massachusetts.

Myrtle. A typical sight. Family and neighbors working on tags on door ...

A group of children sitting on the steps of a house. Public domain portrait photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

"OUR BABY DOFFER" they called him. Donnie Cole. Has been doffing for some months. When asked his age, he hesitated, then said, "I'm Twelve." Another young boy said "He can't work unless he's twelve." Child Labor regulations were conspicuously posted in the mill.  Location: Birmingham, Alabama.

"OUR BABY DOFFER" they called him. Donnie Cole. Has been doffing for s...

An old black and white photo of a boy. Public domain portrait photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Home-work (crochet) in East Side Tenement home. Grandmother pealing [sic] potatoes. (For complete details see Miss E.C. Watson's report.)  Location: New York, New York (State)

Home-work (crochet) in East Side Tenement home. Grandmother pealing [s...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Finishing garments, 10 Hanover Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. The 13 years old girl, Catina Termine finishes the garments and carries them back and forth.  Location: Boston, Massachusettsachusetts.

Finishing garments, 10 Hanover Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. The 13 y...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, economic conditions, children workers, exploitation, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Manuel Sousa and family, 306-2[nd] St., On right end is brother-in-law; next [to] him is father who works on the river; next is Manuel (appears to be 12 years old) wearing sweater and has arms folded, he has been a cleaner in the Holmes Cotton Mill for two years. John, Manuel's brother (next to him in photo) works in City Cotton Mill. Next is sister. At left of end is cousin. Small fry sprinkled around. All are very illiterate. John and Manuel are the only ones who can speak English and they only a little.  Location: New Bedford, Massachusetts.

Manuel Sousa and family, 306-2[nd] St., On right end is brother-in-law...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, economic conditions, children workers, exploitation, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

National Child Labor Committee. No. 92. Main entrance Gary West Virginia. Mine. Miners going into mine 7 A.M. Boy beginning career as "picker." Will be in mine over 10 hours consecutively. 7 A.M. to 5:30 P.M.  Location: Gary, West Virginia.

National Child Labor Committee. No. 92. Main entrance Gary West Virgin...

Picryl description: Public domain image of a miner, coal mine, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Game of Craps. Cincinnati, Ohio. Aug., 1908. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Game of Craps. Cincinnati, Ohio. Aug., 1908. Location: Cincinnati, Ohi...

Public domain image of a group of people, ceremony, event, free to use, no copyright restrictions - Picryl description

Two News Girls, same as #1539. Edward F. Brown, Investigator.  Location: Wilmington, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Two News Girls, same as #1539. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Locatio...

Picryl description: Public domain image of children, kids, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Arnao family, 831 Catherine St., Rear # 2. Whole family works. Jo is 3 years old. Boy is 6 years old, Girl is 9 years old. We found this family, children and all working on Hichens farm, Cannon, Del., May 28th 1910, before school closed. See photos #1582, #1586, and labels. This is the fourth week of school and the mother said they would be here for 15 or 20 days more. Whites Bog, Browns Mills, N.J. Sept. 28, 1910. Witness, E.F. Brown.  Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Arnao family, 831 Catherine St., Rear # 2. Whole family works. Jo is 3...

Public domain historical photo, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Arnao family, 831 Catherine St., Rear # 2. Whole family works. Jo. Is 3 years old, Boy is 6 years old, Girl is 9 years old. We found this family, children and all working on Hichens farm, Cannon, Del, May 28th, 1910, before school closed. See photos #1582, and #1586 and labels. This is the fourth week of school and the mother said they would be here for 15 or 20 days more. Whites Bog, Browns Mills, N. J. Sept. 28, 1910. Witness, E. F. Brown.  Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Arnao family, 831 Catherine St., Rear # 2. Whole family works. Jo. Is ...

Public domain historical photo, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Spinners & doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Many others as small. Dec. 3/08. Sara R. Hine, Witness.  Location: Newberry, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Spinners & doffers in Mollahan Mills, Newberry, S.C. Many others as sm...

Public domain historical photo, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Sidney Ashcraft, 10 years old, 517 Hannibal St., N., Cincinnati. Bundle Carrier.  Location: Cincinnati, Ohio.

Sidney Ashcraft, 10 years old, 517 Hannibal St., N., Cincinnati. Bundl...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Artificial flower making at 8 cents a gross. Youngest child working is 5 years old. Location: New York, New York (State)

Artificial flower making at 8 cents a gross. Youngest child working is...

Public domain historical photo, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Dinner Toters, Columbus, Ga.  Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Dinner Toters, Columbus, Ga. Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Home of Ansley Westover, rear of 8 1/2 Milton St., Worcester, Massachusetts. Mother and children, 4 yrs., 8 yrs., 10 yrs., 11 yrs., and 12 yrs., earn about $4 to $5 a week. Work until 9 P.M. frequently and at times until 10 P.M. or midnight and then sometimes up working before school. (See also report) Photo at 5 P.M. Witness F.A. Smith.  Location: Worcester, Massachusettsachusetts.

Home of Ansley Westover, rear of 8 1/2 Milton St., Worcester, Massachu...

Public domain historical photo, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Interior of a shack occupied by berry pickers. Anne Arundel County., Maryland. Courtesy of Maryland Child Labor Committee.  Location: Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

Interior of a shack occupied by berry pickers. Anne Arundel County., M...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

The pupils in the Cherryville N.C. Graded School. 200 attend, including the High School. Population of the town is 2,000. Where are rest of children? Asked these children how many had ever worked in a cotton mill. About one-third of them held up their hands.  Location: Cherryville, North Carolina.

The pupils in the Cherryville N.C. Graded School. 200 attend, includin...

Picryl description: Public domain image of a school, preschool, children, education, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Glue Room, [N.] Y. Dimension Supply Co., Evansville, Ind. Oct. 1908.  Location: Evansville, Indiana.

Glue Room, [N.] Y. Dimension Supply Co., Evansville, Ind. Oct. 1908. ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Harry, a Cincinnati boy of 18 years, who attends school and earns $.25 daily, carrying bundles.  Location: Cincinnati, Ohio.

Harry, a Cincinnati boy of 18 years, who attends school and earns $.25...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

A Western Union Messenger Boy Leaving Office. Cincinnati.  Location: Cincinnati, Ohio.

A Western Union Messenger Boy Leaving Office. Cincinnati. Location: C...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on warper. Lillie Anderson--Oldest of two sisters. Been in mill five years. Runs only 4 sides. Minnie Anderson, - youngest- runs 8 sides. Been in mill 4 year. One finds many such cases where youngest sister does twice the amount of work. Nov. 28/08. Witness Sara R. Hine.  Location: Chester, South Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Springstein Mills, Chester, S.C. Maggie Wooten (Largest), creels on wa...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

National Child Labor Committee, #200. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co., Evansville, Ind.  Location: Evansville, Indiana.

National Child Labor Committee, #200. S. W. Brown Mfg. Co., Evansville...

Picryl description: Public domain image of an industrial building, factory, workshop, workers, 20th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Some of the cigarmakers F. Sierra Co. Tampa, Fla.  Location: Tampa, Florida.

Some of the cigarmakers F. Sierra Co. Tampa, Fla. Location: Tampa, Fl...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, economic conditions, children workers, exploitation, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Groups showing a few of the workers stringing beans in the J. S. Farrand Packing Co., Baltimore, Md. Those too small to work are held on laps of workers or stowed away in boxes.  Location: Baltimore, Maryland.

Groups showing a few of the workers stringing beans in the J. S. Farra...

Picryl description: Public domain image of a classroom, college auditorium, school, students, teacher, teaching, studying, education, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Some of the workers in a Md. packing company. Plenty of work for even the tiniest hands. Many have to carry heavy boxes full of beans etc.  Location: [Baltimore, Maryland].

Some of the workers in a Md. packing company. Plenty of work for even ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Newsies starting out with Sunday papers, 6 A.M.  Location: Boston, Massachusetts.

Newsies starting out with Sunday papers, 6 A.M. Location: Boston, Mas...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Some of the youngsters working in Peters Shoe Co., De Soto, Mo.  Location: De Soto, Missouri.

Some of the youngsters working in Peters Shoe Co., De Soto, Mo. Locat...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

[Boys and Girls form Canneries, School #3, Buffalo, N.Y. 1) Josephine Oliveri, 19 Peacock St., 12 years old last summer. String beans in shed at Cherry Creek, N.Y. 2) Carmelo Combina, 8 years old last summer. Out-door work Cherry Creek, N.Y. 3) Lucy Gatte, 11 years old last summer. Shells peas and hulls strawberries. 4) Millie Izzio, 202 Carroll St., 12 years old last summer. Worked on peas, beans, berries, and tomatoes in the sheds. 5) Cassio Conjetta, 58 Lloyd St., 9 years old last summer. Snipped beans and worked on corn, berries and tomatoes in the sheds at Forestville, N.Y. 6) Tony Arara, 96 Washington St., Worked on berries, beans and peas in sheds North Collins, and Hamburg, N.Y. 13 years old last summer. 7) Lewis Maseari, 8 years old last summer. Worked on corn, beans, peas, and grapes, in the shed, at Forrestville, N.Y. 8) Angolio Mirandi, 8 years old last summer. Husked corn, peas and beans in sheds North Collins, N.Y. 9) Leonard Boscaglia, 62 Main St., 8 years old last summer. Worked on [...] 10) Lucy May, 8 years old last summer. Worked on beans, peas, and berries in the shed at Franklin. 11) Dan Quaratello, 22 State St., 12 years old last summer. Worked in sheds. 12) Mary Tagelliferio, 44 Perry St., 13 years old last summer. Worked in sheds. 13) Johgn Thomas, 71 State St., 14 years old last summer. Worked in sheds. 14) Angelio Jesso, 39 Main St., 12 years old last summer. Shed work. 15) Daniel George, 4 State St., 11 years old last summer. Worked in sheds. 16) Dominick Caggiana, 33 1/2 Burrell Place, 10 years old last summer. Shed work. 17) Carman Juggio, 43 Myrtle Ave., 10 years old last summer. Shed work. 18) Tony La Spazzi, 49 Scott St., 14 years old last summer.]  Location: [Buffalo, New York (State)].

[Boys and Girls form Canneries, School #3, Buffalo, N.Y. 1) Josephine ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of children, kids, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

[Kibbe's Candy Factory. Isaac Futterman, 15 years, 108 Sharon St. Jacob Futterman, 16 years, 108 Sharon St. William Cohan, 16 years, 102 Washburn St. Cocoanut Shavers at Kibbe's. The Futterman boys had been at work one year. Isaac earned $3.50; Jacob - $4.00.]  Location: Springfield, Massachusetts.

[Kibbe's Candy Factory. Isaac Futterman, 15 years, 108 Sharon St. Jaco...

Picryl description: Public domain image of a child labor, factory, plant, manufacture, industrial facility, early 20th-century industrial architecture, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Joseph Buonasari, 207 7th Street, Buffalo, N.Y. Second Grade, School #1. 12 years old last summer. Worked on beans and apples and tomatoes in sheds and factory, getting 50 cents a day, sometimes until 8 P.M. Parents sometimes work all night until 5 A.M. Entered School #1, January 11th from School #2.  Location: Buffalo, New York (State)

Joseph Buonasari, 207 7th Street, Buffalo, N.Y. Second Grade, School #...

Picryl description: Public domain vintage artistic photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image.

Newsboys, begging tobacco coupons. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Lewis W. Hine. Photographer.  Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Newsboys, begging tobacco coupons. Edward F. Brown, Investigator. Lewi...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

A few of the youngsters working in the Cigarette Factory of the American Tobacco Co., Petersburg, Virginia All work. I went through the factory during working hours and saw dozens of little boys and girls working and helping, who were apparently from 11 to 14 years old. Many of the smallest ones would not be photographed. Photo at 6:30 A.M.  Location: Petersburg, Virginia.

A few of the youngsters working in the Cigarette Factory of the Americ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

A "reflection" on the parent. Reflection in looking glass shows the father who had been picking nuts but refused to be photographed. He is out of work. Tommy Mascola, 5 years, picks some, Minne, 7 years, Rosie 9, and Angeline 11. Make $3.00 and $4.00 a week. 145 Hudson St., New York City.  Location: New York, New York (State)

A "reflection" on the parent. Reflection in looking glass shows the fa...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

"Spider" Estes, fourteen year old doffer. Been working in Guadalupe Valley Cotton Mills one year. Violation of the law.  Location: Cuero, Texas.

"Spider" Estes, fourteen year old doffer. Been working in Guadalupe Va...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Ellis Island Immigrant Portraits

Hine, Lewis Wickes .Selling on Main Street in the afternoon hours. The majority sell no later than 7 P.M..Buffalo, New York State 1910-1920. .NMFF.003537

A typical group of workers in the Aragon Mill, Rock Hill,.  Location: Rock Hill, South Carolina.

A typical group of workers in the Aragon Mill, Rock Hill,. Location: ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

[Newsboy holding The Washington Times, Washington, D.C.]

[Newsboy holding The Washington Times, Washington, D.C.]

A black and white photo of a woman holding a newspaper. Public domain portrait photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

[The Swimming Hole. Group of boys - 14 to 16 years - just returned from working in tobacco at Southwick, Massachusetts., on Galpin's farm.]  Location: Westfield, Massachusettsachusetts. / Lewis W. Hine.

[The Swimming Hole. Group of boys - 14 to 16 years - just returned fro...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

[Eleven-year-old bakery worker Glenn Dungey. Ellis Report, L.W. Hine.]  Location: [Oklahoma City, Oklahoma].

[Eleven-year-old bakery worker Glenn Dungey. Ellis Report, L.W. Hine.]...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Homework pictures taken in connection with investigation (see report TE-NY-39).  Location: New York, New York (State)

Homework pictures taken in connection with investigation (see report T...

Picryl description: Public domain image of a portrait of the person with lace costume accessory, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Homework pictures taken in connection with investigation (see report TE-NY-39).  Location: New York, New York (State)

Homework pictures taken in connection with investigation (see report T...

Picryl description: Public domain image of children, kids, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

A man standing in a field with a suitcase, New Jersey. Farm Security Administration photograph

A man standing in a field with a suitcase, New Jersey. Farm Security A...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

A black and white photo of a little girl sitting in a field, New Jersey. Farm Security Administration photograph

A black and white photo of a little girl sitting in a field, New Jerse...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Child labor, cranberry bog, Burlington County, New Jersey

Child labor, cranberry bog, Burlington County, New Jersey

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Boy probably about 13 years old, tying strips which he has taken away from the planer. Schultze Waltum Co., Planing Mill.  Location: Evansville, Indiana.

Boy probably about 13 years old, tying strips which he has taken away ...

Public domain historical photo, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Noon. Girl entering the factory door, 526 W. Broadway, with artificial flowers made at home.  Location: New York, New York (State)

Noon. Girl entering the factory door, 526 W. Broadway, with artificial...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Pete Trombetta (and Padrone in the background) is 10 years of age, working his 6th season. He is the carrier for the Trombetta family. The tray of berries weighing between 25 and 30 lbs., and so long as the family is working in the fields, and as fast as they pick a tray, little Pete hurries off to the farmer. While waiting for the tray to be filled, little Pete picks berries. Edward F. Brown, Investigator, Seaford, Del.  Location: Seaford, Delaware / Photo by Lewis W. Hine., May 28th, 1910.

Pete Trombetta (and Padrone in the background) is 10 years of age, wor...

Picryl description: Public domain image of a farm, farmer, agriculture, early 20th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Twin spinners in Saxon Mill, Spartenberg [sic], S.C. Joe and Pearl Steading, 75 William St., make 44 cents a day each. Another sister works. Mother a widow.  Location: Spartanburg, South Carolina.

Twin spinners in Saxon Mill, Spartenberg [sic], S.C. Joe and Pearl Ste...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

National Child Labor Committee. No. 191. Frank, a Miner Boy, going home. About 14 years old: has worked in the mine helping father pick and load for three years: was in hospital one year, when leg had been crushed by coal car.

National Child Labor Committee. No. 191. Frank, a Miner Boy, going hom...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Mrs. A.L.A. She [?] & her 3 children - 11, 9, & 6 yrs old work at flower making. The 2 year [old?] is learning, & they say ought[?] to be able to help in a year or so. Mother receives a pension.  Location: [New York (State)].

Mrs. A.L.A. She [?] & her 3 children - 11, 9, & 6 yrs old work at flow...

A group of people sitting around a table. Public domain portrait photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Amusing themselves while waiting for morning papers.  Location: New York, New York (State)

Amusing themselves while waiting for morning papers. Location: New Yo...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Hot Weather Delights, Newsboys' Protective Association, Cincinnati.  Location: Cincinnati, Ohio.

Hot Weather Delights, Newsboys' Protective Association, Cincinnati. L...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Group of Newsboys on Frankfort Street near World Building.  Witness, Fred McMurrry.  Location: New York, New York (State) / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of Newsboys on Frankfort Street near World Building. Witness, F...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Children of night superintendent, in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. (1) Bessie Moore - runs 4 sides. Has worked two years nights. (2) Frank (smallest). Doffs. Has worked 2 yrs. nights. (3) George (largest). Looked 12 years old. Doffs--3 years of night work, was proud of the fact that he could write his name. Mother said they rather work nights because they had to put in fewer hours then. Sunday, Dec. 6, 1908. Witness, Sara R. Hine.  Location: Laurinburg, North Carolina / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Children of night superintendent, in Dickson Mill, Laurinburg, N.C. (1...

Picryl description: Public domain image of children, kids, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Waiting For The Signal. Newsboys, starting out with base-ball extra. 5 P.M., Times Star Office.  Location: Cincinnati, Ohio.

Waiting For The Signal. Newsboys, starting out with base-ball extra. 5...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Early Education. Boy is 12 years old. Been selling for 3 years. Sells until 7 P.M. Hartford, Conn.  Location: Hartford, Connecticut.

Early Education. Boy is 12 years old. Been selling for 3 years. Sells ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Labor Day Parade, children in Child Labor demonstration, New York

Labor Day Parade, children in Child Labor demonstration, New York

A group of people standing next to each other. Public domain portrait photograph, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Marie and Albert Kawalski. 615 S. Band St., Baltimore, Md. Albert is 10 and Marie 11 years old. They worked, with mother, last winter, shucking oysters for Varn & Beard Packing Co., Young Island, S.C. (near Charleston). Mrs. Kawalski did not have things represented to her correctly and she found that all the children that had fare paid were compelled to work for the company. Other smaller children worked some and went to school some. Maire and Albert have worked several summers in the berry, beans and tomato fields packing houses near Baltimore. (see my report, July 10, for further [particulars]).  Location: Baltimore, Maryland.

Marie and Albert Kawalski. 615 S. Band St., Baltimore, Md. Albert is 1...

Picryl description: Public domain image of children, kids, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Antonio Martina, 53 Carolina Street, Buffalo, N.Y. 11 years old last summer. Attends School #1. He, and a 13-year-old sister worked in sheds of Ellis-Canning Factory, Brant, N.Y., snipping beans at 1 cents a pound. Left for the country in May, returned late in September, losing about 7 weeks of school. He sells papers reluctantly.  Location: Buffalo, New York (State)

Antonio Martina, 53 Carolina Street, Buffalo, N.Y. 11 years old last s...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

School #2, Buffalo, N.Y. Vincent Cannici, 13 years old last summer. Ran apple machine in cannery, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Canada. Lost 9 weeks school in the fall. Did not make good in promotion. Angelo, Brimo, 11 years old last summer. Ran apple machine in cannery, $1.25 to $1.50 a day, worked sometimes until 9 or 10 p.m. Lost 15 weeks schooling. Is a repeater.  Buffalo, New York (State)

School #2, Buffalo, N.Y. Vincent Cannici, 13 years old last summer. Ra...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Meyer Slein a 12 year old newsie who has been on streets until late at night and with bad associates. Kept irregular hours. Stole from large retail stores. Often stayed away from home all night. Two of his brothers are in the Reform School.  Location: St. Louis, Missouri.

Meyer Slein a 12 year old newsie who has been on streets until late at...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Noon, May 12th, 1910. Girls working in Inland Type Foundry, 9 to 10 hours a day.  Location: St. Louis, Missouri.

Noon, May 12th, 1910. Girls working in Inland Type Foundry, 9 to 10 ho...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Labor Committee at Mill, Passaic

Labor Committee at Mill, Passaic

Public domain photograph related to child labor, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Name: Children from school No. 2 in the Italian district Terrace[?] nr. Genesee St. Many of these children spend their summer vacations in the canning and fruit picking settlements where their parents go to work during the season. Feb. 8, 1910, Buffalo, N.Y.  Location: Buffalo, New York (State)

Name: Children from school No. 2 in the Italian district Terrace[?] nr...

Picryl description: Public domain image of a school, preschool, children, education, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

When the whistle blows. Closing hour at Danville (Virginia) Cigarette Factory.  Location: Danville, Virginia.

When the whistle blows. Closing hour at Danville (Virginia) Cigarette ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Mrs. Mary Caperale (a widow), 141 Hudson St., picking nuts, while her two daughters help her. The dirty children are handling the nuts and playing with them. The open bag of nuts stands around all day. Room littered with waste and kindling wood. Make $3.00 to $3.50 a week. An 18 year old girl works in a paper box factory by day and helps pick nuts at night.  Location: New York, New York (State)

Mrs. Mary Caperale (a widow), 141 Hudson St., picking nuts, while her ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of a living room, salon, office, late 19th-century interior, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

[...]m #2. Joseph Delforno, 46 Bishop St., has worked there 6 months; has job "filling heels" in Long's Shoe Factroy [i.e., Factory] said, "I'm supposed to go [...]ress [i.e., Cypress?] St. to night school."  Location: South Framingham, Massachusetts.

[...]m #2. Joseph Delforno, 46 Bishop St., has worked there 6 months; ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

5 minutes to 9 A.M. Eleven-year-old girl running home with a twenty-pound load of garter buttons for home-work. Trying not to be late for school. (See also Report.)  Location: Worcester, Massachusetts.

5 minutes to 9 A.M. Eleven-year-old girl running home with a twenty-po...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

[Hand bill advertising vaudeville acts by the Shrier children. See photo and label 2937 and report of L.H. Hine. Location: [Washington (D.C.), District of Columbia]

[Hand bill advertising vaudeville acts by the Shrier children. See pho...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

A Load of kimonos just finished. Girl very reticent. Thompson St., N.Y.  Location: New York, New York (State)

A Load of kimonos just finished. Girl very reticent. Thompson St., N.Y...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Composite photograph of child laborers made from cotton mill children.

Composite photograph of child laborers made from cotton mill children.

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, economic conditions, children workers, exploitation, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Group of workers in Perkins Hosiery Mill, Columbus, Ga. Not many very young children here. Dozens of them in the adjoining mill.  Location: Columbus, Georgia.

Group of workers in Perkins Hosiery Mill, Columbus, Ga. Not many very ...

Picryl description: Public domain image of child labor, exploitation, children workers, economic conditions, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Housing Conditions of the white workers in Varn & Platt.  Location: Bluffton, South Carolina.

Housing Conditions of the white workers in Varn & Platt. Location: Bl...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Group of workers in the Massachusetts Mills, Lindale, Ga. Photo taken at noon, April 12, 1913, while they were being paid off. During the days following this, I proved the ages of nearly a dozen of these children, by gaining access to Family Records, Life Insurance papers, and through conversations with the children and parents, and found these that I could prove to be working now, or during the past year at 10 and 11 years of age, some of them having begun before they were ten. Further search would reveal dozens more. (See Hine Report.) Massachusetts Mills, Lindale, Ga. Apr. 12, 1913.  Location: Lindale, Georgia / Photo by Lewis W. Hine.

Group of workers in the Massachusetts Mills, Lindale, Ga. Photo taken ...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph group portrait, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Harriet Cotton Mills. Investigator spent the noon hour and part of the day around the mill, and saw a few very young children. He was not able to get into the mills, but indications are that there is plenty of child labor here when work is brisk.  Location: Henderson, North Carolina.

Harriet Cotton Mills. Investigator spent the noon hour and part of the...

Public domain image of personnel, army, group of people in uniform, parade, historic place, military activity, free to use, no copyright restrictions - Picryl description

[Sugar beet workers, Sugar City, Colorado. Mary, six years, Lucy, eight, Ethel, ten. Family has been here ten years. Children go to school in the winter. See Hine Report, Colorado Beet Workers, July 1915.]  Location: [Sugar City, Colorado]

[Sugar beet workers, Sugar City, Colorado. Mary, six years, Lucy, eigh...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Carl Brown, eleven years old. He and his father run a farm of 160 acres in Southern Vermont. He is overgrown, sluggish, but he said: "I'd ruther go to school." See Hine Report, Rural Child Labor, August 1915 Location: Southern Vermont, Vermont.

Carl Brown, eleven years old. He and his father run a farm of 160 acre...

Picryl description: Public domain image of working farmers, agriculture, farm, 20th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

[Eight-year old Jack on a Western Massachusetts farm. He is a type of child who is being overworked in many rural districts. See Hine Report, Rural Child Labor, August 1915.  Location: [Western Massachusetts, Massachusetts]

[Eight-year old Jack on a Western Massachusetts farm. He is a type of ...

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of child, child labor, farmer, early 20th-century farm, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

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